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New Strategic Partner Japan to help RSS to accomplish corporate Hindu Nation! Is Modi Dumping US interest to revive fascist link once again? Japan to invest $34 billion in India, no nuke deal! Palash Biswas

New Strategic Partner Japan to help RSS to accomplish corporate Hindu Nation!

Is Modi Dumping US interest to revive fascist link once again? Japan to invest $34 billion in India, no nuke deal!

Palash Biswas

Japan to help RSS to accomplish corporate Hindu Nation!Is Modi Dumping US interest to revive fascist link once again?

First NDA Government aligned with zionism and Israel and now Modi makes Japan India`s strategic partner.

Mind you,anti Islam anti Arab Israel happens to be not only India`s partner in the strategic alliance led by United states of America but also it is the nation which intervenes most in the affairs of internal security in India all on the name of US war against terror.Thus,India kept mum and avoided discussion on continuous  genocide in Gaza in the Indian Parliament despite the fact that India had been always supporting the Arabs.But it should be also kept in mind that India`s foreign policy and diplomacy kept on changing not because of the unipolar new world after oil war and the demise of USSR,in fact,because of the  the resurrection of Brahaminical hindutva tagged with racial, hegemonial Manusmriti economics which suits most the globalisation of ethnic cleansing.

India did not support Saddam Hussain`s stance that oil business should opt for euro dumping dollar,nor India tried to avoid the war in the middle east.Economically, India has to depend on middle east oil and India shifted its foreign policy favouring Israel.It is in accordance with Hindutva agenda and Congress also followed the Hindutva line.It should be clear with last Loksabha election experience while Congress just handed over power to RSS to accomplish the Hindutva agenda.

History repeats itself.RSS ideology glorifies Nazi and Fascist icons and incidentally Japan was the third ally of Hitler`s Germany and Mussolini`s Italy.It also in accordance with Hindutva aspiration to become the next superpower for which India has began to look forward to East and specificaaly the Buddhist demography.Hinduva has to digest sikhism,buddhism and jainism to acomplish Hidu imerialist agenda.

Simply this is why India risks its strategic partnership with United States of america to become bed partner with Japan.

Of course,the summit in Tokyo could not see Indo Japanese Nuclear agreement and it seems it would take more time but Japan has got the doors wide open in India to replace US companies in sensitive defence and nuclear energy sectors.Moreover,Japan has got the infra sector as bonus in return.

It is a blooming lotus all over the est as Prime Minister Narendra Modi and his Japanese counterpart Shinzo Abe during their summit talks also reaffirmed the importance of bilateral defence relations in their strategic partnership and agreed on greater defence equipment and technology cooperation.

However, though Japan announced doubling of its private and public investment in India to about $34 billion over the next five years even as the two countries decided to elevate their ties to a special strategic global partnership but failed to conclude a civil nuclear deal.

It is no set back because balls always have the necessary spin.

It seems to be an interesting deal which helps to accomplish RSS agenda of Hindu nation which is incidentally against US interest as US perhaps succeeded to export Arab Spring in Pakistan for its strategy to bail out the US war economy.Japanese entrance in the defence as well as nuclear energy sector aborts US plan.

Meanwhile,Arab Spring is doing wonders in Pakistan which should conclude in a planned exit of Nawaz Sharif and the army will have the control which ultimately intensify arms race if India traps itself in yet another Indo Pak war as last NDA  government`s reforms got the most essential boost to reforms`  agenda  to serve US agenda.

RSS always wants a love Zihad against Pakistan which would invoke most extreme blind nationalism,which is politics all about and it has economic ends also.Japanese entry in the strategic defence sector would serve no cause in the interest of US war economy either.

Since Japanese interests have to do nothing with shafron interests and rather it would gift Japan the greatest emerging market,Japan has to help RSS to accomplish its Hindu nation objective.

Here you are,it is the master stroke by the prime RSS activist.

The summit meeting took place on the third day of Modi's five-day visit to Japan when the two countries also decided to expedite talks on sale of US-2 amphibian aircraft to India for enhancing maritime security.

At a joint press conference, Abe also announced that as an example of Indo-Japan cooperation, Tokyo will help India in providing financial, technical and operational support to introduce Bullet trains, a project that Modi has been actively pursuing.

Japan will also help India in providing better connectivity with its neighbours, he said. On the civil nuclear deal, which was expected to be finalized during the visit, Abe said they have directed the officials to accelerate negotiations for early conclusion of an agreement to strengthen partnership.

While India is said to be pursuing the deal with Japan on the template of the landmark Indo-US nuclear accord, Tokyo is said to be not that enthusiastic about that being the basis. The 3.5 trillion yen($34 billion) of investment from Japan to India including Official Development Assositance (ODA) during a 5-year period will be under the aegis of India-Japan Investment Promotion Partnership for development of projects including infrastructure and building of smart cities.

The five-year period will also see the doubling of the presence of Japanese firms in India, Abe said. Thanking Abe for providing him an opportunity to make Japan his first bilateral visit outside South Asia, Modi said," we both have decided to raise the relationship to a special strategic and global partnership by giving it a special emphasis". Asserting that his visit ushered in a dawn of new era in Indo-Japan relations, Modi said there is no "limit" to partnership between the two countries.

Coinciding with the summit, Japan removed six of India's space and defence-related entities from its Foreign End User List.

On the nuclear cooperation issue, Abe said "important progress" has been made in the past several months.

He said the two sides were able to have a frank discussion and a deeper understanding on this issue.

Modi said India and Japan are old friends and that his current visit will give an opportunity to both of them to further intensify their ties.

Modi said a developed India and a prosperous Japan was important for Asia and for global peace and security. India and Japan are two big democracies and they are also part of the three big economies of Asia, he noted.

He said 21st century is said to be Asia's century but for that to become a reality it is dependent on cooperation between India and Japan and that is why the two countries have decided to elevate their relationship.

"This is not just raising the relationship from one category to another... Our relationship is not only regional in its framework, but will have a global impact," he added.

Modi also said that Japan occupies top priority in India's foreign policy.

He was effusive in his praise for Abe saying he spent a considerable amount of his valuable time to be with him in Kyoto for two days and in Tokyo today.

The Prime Minister said Abe has agreed to cooperate with India in all areas taking into account his vision of inclusive development of the country.

"We will help you," Abe told Modi, adding he was ready to extend his help in Ganga cleaning project when he raised the issue.

"This is an example of his love and respect for India," he said, adding the relationship between the two countries was also spiritual in nature.

M.S. Golwalkar: Conceptualizing Hindutva Fascism

By Ram Puniyani

10 March, 2006

Beginning this twenty Fourth February, RSS combine has undertaken programs in different parts of the country to celebrate the centenary year of RSS second Sarsnghchalak (supreme dictator), Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar, known in Sangh circles as Shri Guruji. What are going to be the implications of this celebration? To answer this, we will have to delve into the work of Golwlakar, who penned a small book, 'We or our Nationhood Defined' (We…), which gives an outline of his ideology and later his articles were published as a compilation, 'Bunch of Thoughts'. In both these books and also in various other outpourings of his, he denigrates democracy and pluralism on one hand and upholds fascist concept of nationhood and sectarian version of culture on the other. His writing is most intimidating to the minorities in particular. He was the chief of RSS for 33 long years and was instrumental in giving RSS a direction, which assumed menacing proportions in times to come, and strengthening the foundations of the 'hate minorities' ideology resulting in the consequent waves of violence, undermining the democratic norms in the society. He can also be 'credited' with giving the sharp formulations which laid the ideological foundation of different carnages in the country.

Golwalkar praises Lord Manu as the greatest law giver mankind ever had. It was the same law giver Manu's book, which was burnt by Dr. Ambedkar in his pursuit of getting justice for the dalits. In current times, Golwalkars' successor also demanded a throwing away of Indian constitution, to be replaced by the one which is based on Hindu holy books, implying Manusmriti, of course.

His formulations of Hindutva Fascism are so blatant that even his followers, the RSS combine, is running for cover and claiming that this book, having a naked hatred for minorities and eulogies for the likes of Hitler, We…, was not written by him. They avoid owning these ideas. But one knows that this book was penned by him. In an affidavit submitted to the charity commissioner, Rajendra Singh, a later Sarsanghchalak pleaded, "With a view to give a scientific base to propagate the idea-India being historically from time immemorial a Hindu nation-the late Shri M.S. Golwalkar had written a book entitled 'We or Our Nationhood defined', which was published in 1938." (Quoted in Islam, Undoing India: The RSS way) J.A. Curran in his classic study, RSS: Militant Hinduism in India Politics- A study of RSS: points out "The genuine ideology of Sangh is based upon principles formulated by its founder, Dr. Hedgewar. These principles have been consolidated and amplified by the present leader ( i.e. Golwalkar) in a small book called "We or our nationhood defined". It is a basic primer in the indoctrination of Sangh volunteers… (Curran 1979, p.39). Since its quotations have been brought to the notice of people, RSS publishing houses have stopped republishing this book. What does Golwalkar say in this book?

In this book he rejects the notions of Indian nationhood, India as a Nation in the making. He rejects the idea that all the citizens will be equal. He goes on to harp the notions of nationhood borrowed from Hitler's Nazi movement. He rejects that India is a secular nation and posits that it is a Hindu Rashtra. He rejects the territorial-political concept of nationhood and puts forward the concept of cultural nationalism, which was the foundation of Nazi ideology. His admiration of Hitler's ideology and politics is the running thread of the book and he takes inspiration from the massive holocaust which decimated millions of people in Germany. He uses this as a shield to propagate his political ideology. It is this ideology which formed the base of communal common sense amongst a section of the population. "German national pride has now become the topic of the day. To keep up purity of the nation and its culture, Germany shocked the world by her purging the country of the Semitic races, the Jews. National pride at its highest has been manifested here. Germany has also shown how well-nigh impossible it is for races and cultures having differences going to the root, to be assimilated into a united whole, a good lesson for us in Hindustan to learn and profit by." (We…, 1938, p.37)

In the Sangh circles this book is regarded as their Gita. The implications for Indian minorities are presented here in a forthright manner. Today the swayamsevaks brought up on this Gita, do believe in all this but the language of expression is being made more polished so that the poison is coated with honey and administered with ease. Golwalkar goes on to assert, "From the standpoint sanctioned by the experience of shrewd nations, the non-Hindu people in Hindustan must either adopt the Hindu culture and language, must learn to respect and revere Hindu religion, must entertain no idea but the glorification of Hindu nation i.e. they must not only give up their attitude of intolerance and ingratitude towards this land and its age long traditions, but must also cultivate the positive attitude of love and devotion instead; in one word, they must cease to be foreigners or may stay in the country wholly subordinated to the Hindu nation, claiming nothing, deserving no privileges, for less any preferential treatment, not even the citizen's rights." (Ibid p.52).

When the Hindutva politics came up in the late 1980s, in the beginning an unsuspecting observer could not comprehend from where has the concept of Hindu nation come up suddenly, why such an intense hatred for minorities, a glance at We… and one becomes clear that those fed on this ideology cannot but be what they are, cannot do anything else than what they did and have been doing since 1990, the Babri demolition, the anti minority violence and an open violation of democratic ethos of the country. These ideas were translated into the stories of atrocities of Muslim kings, the myth of Hindus owning this land from times immemorial and a lot of such make believe concoction. Irrespective of the fact the freedom movement rejected this ideology and its formulations, it was kept alive through the ideological indoctrination work in the RSS shakhas going on ceaselessly.

Golwalkar was also faced with some of the naïve swaymasevaks wishing to participate in the national movement, more so after the massive Quit India movement was launched. That time Golwalkar was the RSS chief and he dissuaded the people from participating in the movement, and some of them who participated did it in their personal capacity, some of them now claim that they also participated. ( e.g. Atal Bihari Vajpayee, who was onlooker in the anti British movement, was arrested but wriggled out of the jail and later claimed to have participated in the movement.) As matter of fact Golwalkar was very contemptuous towards the anti British movement. There is no mention of presence of RSS in the anti British movement even in most of the sympathetic accounts written about it. Even Nanaji Deshmukh, the foremost leaders of RSS puts this question, why did RSS not take part in the liberation struggle as an organization? (Deshmukh, Victim of Slander, Vision Books, 1979, p.70) Since Golwalkar propounded religion based nationalism, there was no place for anti British stance. "The theories of territorial nationalism and of common danger, which formed the basis of our concept of nation, had deprived us of the positive and inspiring content of our real Hindu Nationhood and made many of the 'freedom movements' virtually anti-British movements. Anti Britishism was equated with patriotism and nationalism. This reactionary view has had disastrous effects upon the entire course of freedom movement…" (Bunch of thoughts, 1996, p.138). In a frank defense of British colonialist he reminds the people of RSS pledge, "We should remember that in our pledge we have talked of freedom of the country through defending religion and culture. There is no mention of departure of British in that." (Shri Guruji Samgra Darshan, Vol 4, p. 2) With allies like this British could merrily pursue their policy of divide and rule!

No wonder British never repressed RSS. Also the collusion between Religion based nationalism and colonialism can be understood from such statements. Later the World saw that in tune with this pro imperialist ideology, Golwalkar was to support the US aggression on Vietnam and his successor Sudarshan defended the US aggression against Iraq.

The murder of Father of the Nation Mahatma Gandhi by a Hindutva follower Nathuram Godse not only shocked the whole nation; it led RSS followers to celebrate this event by distributing sweets. While RSS followers were celebrating, and the links of Godse with RSS became apparent, RSS was banned and Golwalkar was arrested. They denied that RSS had any links with Godse. At that time it was easy to claim so as RSS had no written constitution and membership lists, enrollment register etc. Godse was RSS Pracharak and later he joined Hindu Mahasabha and was editing a newspaper, Agrani (leader), the subtitle of the paper was Hindu Rashtra. In the court he denied any links with RSS. Later his brother Gopal Godse, who was also an accomplice in the murder, in an interview given to Times of India (25 Jan 98) stated that his brother Nathuram spoke a deliberate lie in the court, "The appeasement policy followed by him (Gandhi) and imposed on all Congress governments' encouraged the Muslim separatist tendencies that eventually created Pakistan…Technically and theoretically he (Nathuram) was a member (of RSS), but he stopped workings for it later. His statement in the court that he had left the RSS was to protect the RSS workers who would be imprisoned following the murder. On the understanding that they (RSS workers) would benefit from his dissociating himself from the RSS, he gladly did it."

In the wake of the murder of Gandhi, RSS was banned and Golwalkar was jailed, from where he wrote a letter to the Government of India offering to cooperate with the government in 'dealing with the menace of Communism' in return for being released from the jail. Incidentally it was also the period when US was on the witch hunt of communists world over. Today, the global US agenda of demonization of Islam, and Muslims world over matches with the RSS agenda, coincidence again? Is this running parallel in the matching agenda US and RSS policies a mere coincidence?

For him the notion of Hindu Rashtra remained supreme and he could never reconcile to the secular values of Indian constitution. Time and over again he kept on harping on how UnBharat the constitution is and how Manu's rules are more desirable and profound one's. The partition of India and the consequent tragedy was registered through the Hindutva eyes, "Even to this day there are many who say, 'now there is no Muslim problem at all. All those riotous elements who supported Pakistan have gone away once for all. The remaining Muslims are devoted to our country. After all they have no other place to go and they are all bound to remain loyal…It would be suicidal to delude ourselves into believing that they have turned patriot overnight after the creation of Pakistan. On the contrary, Muslim menace has increased a hundredfold by the creation of Pakistan, which has become a springboard for all their future aggressive designs on our country." (Bunch of Thoughts, Bangalore, 1996, p. 177-78)

The way to look at Indian communities as Hindus and Muslims as uniform monoliths continues to be exhibited all through. Further he also goes on to label Muslims, Christians and Communists as internal threats to Hindu nation. And this is the 'ideological fodder ' of RSS shakhas and its practical unfoldment is visible in the regular occurrence of attacks against Muslims and Christians. With collapse of Soviet Union, the venom against communists has been given a different turn. And in the third category secularist have also been added up as a threat to Hindu nation.

It was Golwalkar again under whose stewardship the RSS gave birth to other organizations to play the divisive role in different arenas of social and political life. He was instrumental in helping bring up Bharatiya Jansangh, Akhil Bhartiya Vidayarthi Parishad, Bharatiya Majdoor Sangh, Vanvasi Kalyan Ashram and Vishwa Hindu Parishad, amongst others. The infiltration of RSS cadres in different wings of state apparatus; army, police, bureaucracy, judiciary, education and media was another move initiated by Golwalkar, the effects of which are visible prominently from last two decades.

While secular democratic elements, activists have a long road ahead, we need to take care that in the already vitiated atmosphere, the communal divide is not accentuated further by this move of RSS and we put forward the values of humane plural and democratic society and dispel the ideologies which have been playing a very divisive role in the society.

Was Guru Golwalkar a Nazi ?

Dr Koenraad Elst.

The following paper is a short version of chapter 2 of my forthcoming bookThe Saffron Swastika, Voice of India, Delhi, September 1999.

1. Guruji's first book

It is routinely alleged in press articles and even in scholarly publications that Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar, second sarsanghchalak ("chief guide of the association") of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh ("national volunteer association") from 1940 till his death in 1973, and colloquially known as Guruji, was an open admirer and emulator of Adolf Hitler. Thus, according to Sudip Mazumdar (Newsweek, 27-5-1996), Golwalkar was "a supremacist who openly admired some of Hitler's ideas on racial purity".

However, from his fairly copious writings, public statements and interview transcripts during his term at the head of the RSS (1940-73), no indication of such Hitlerian sympathies has ever been quoted. The case is based entirely on a few lines in Golwalkar's first book: We. Our Nationhood Defined, published by Bharat Publications, Nagpur 1939, self-described as "this maiden attempt of mine" (We1939, p.3), and completed "as early as the first week of November 1938" (We, p.4/p.3; where two page numbers are given for the same quotation, the first refers to the original 1939 edition, the second to the 1947 reprint of the second edition).

1.1. Story of the book

In his foreword to We, Golwalkar explains that this 77-page book is largely an adaptation from Rashtra Mimansa ("reflection on the nation"), a Marathi book by Ganesh Damodar Savarkar, brother of the then president of the Hindu Mahasabha, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, which in turn acknowledges the influence of 19th-century European liberal nationalists like Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-72) and Johann Kaspar Bluntschli (1808-81). We should not explain Golwalkar's reference to Savarkar as a kind of disclaimer, as some defensive RSS sympathizers do: like most ideas which people have, the nationalist vision expounded in We was largely borrowed from others but interiorized by the author. It was very much Golwalkar's own conviction eventhough it was not invented by him.

The book had all the marks of an immature first publication. Apart from being largely second-hand in contents, it was often confused in its reasoning and intemperate in its language. This criticism is even made in the preface of the book itself, completed on 4 March 1939 by M.S. Aney, a Hindutva-oriented Congress activist and member of the Central Assembly: "I also desire to add that the strong and impassioned language used by the author towards those who do not subscribe to his theory of nationalism is also not in keeping with the dignity with which the scientific study of a complex problem like the Nationalism deserves to be pursued." (We 1939, p.xviii) In the revised edition, some of the strong language has been toned down -- and Aney's foreword left out.

The revised edition of We went through several reprints, the last of them brought out in 1947. Not long after that, Golwalkar and his closest lieutenants in the RSS decided to withdraw the book from circulation. References in the present paper are to both the first edition, published in 1939, and to the final 1947 reprint of the revised edition.

1.2. Two popular quotations

Most critics who devote half a page to Golwalkar (e.g. Frontline editor N. Ram: "The fascist basis of Hindutva", Observer of Business and Politics, 19-1-1993; and CPM politburo member Sitaram Yechurey: Pseudo-Hinduism Exposed, CPI(M), Delhi 1993, p.2-3, and "What is this Hindu Rashtra?", Frontline, 12-3-1993, or p.14 of its republication as a separate booklet: What Is this Hindu Rashtra?, Frontline, Madras 1993) never miss the opportunity to quote the following two passages from Golwalkar's book We. Our Nationhood Defined:

       "From this standpoint, sanctioned by the experience of shrewd old nations, the foreign races in Hindusthan must either adopt the Hindu culture and language, must learn to respect and hold in reverence Hindu religion, must entertain no idea but those of the glorification of the Hindu race and culture, i.e. of the Hindu nation, and must lose their separate existence to merge in the Hindu race; or may stay in the country, wholly subordinated to the Hindu Nation, claiming nothing, deserving no privileges, far less any preferential treatment -- not even citizen's rights." (We, p.47-48/p.55-56)

       "To keep up the purity of the Race and its culture, Germany shocked the world by her purging the country of the Semitic races -- the Jews. Race pride at its highest has been manifested here. Germany has also shown how well-nigh impossible it is for Races and cultures, having differences going to the root, to be assimilated into one united whole, a good lesson for us in Hindusthan to learn and profit by." (We, p.35/p.43)

In the present paper, we will discuss these quotations in their proper context, and the typical and trend-setting use made of them by N. Ram and by Sitaram Yechurey. But to give an idea of just how routinely these two quotations are employed to build the Hindutva movement's image, let us first mention their presentation in a BBC documentary on the Bharatiya Janata Party ("Indian People's Party"), broadcast on 17 June 1993.

Typically, the speaker announcing the documentary, who spent no more than two sentences on its contents, already said that it would "reveal the connections of the organization behind the BJP with Nazi Germany", this organization being the RSS. In the documentary, an actor dressed and made up to look like Golwalkar in his younger days, read out the two paragraphs. However, no actual connection between the RSS and Nazi Germany was revealed. In fact, the entire 45 minutes did not contain any other information about or quotations from the RSS's ideological classics: not from Golwalkar's later publications, nor from any other Hindutva ideologue. Till today, and even in academic publications, it is very common to see the anti-BJP rhetoric built entirely on these few sentences in Golwalkar's pamphlet of more than sixty years ago.

When this "information" trickles down to journalistic publications, we get something like this statement from the leading Flemish daily De Standaard (5-3-1998): "In the 1930s, one of the RSS leaders, Gowalkar (sic), made a plea for 'racial purity' and called Hitler's campaign against the Jews 'a source of inspiration'." Note that Golwalkar's text mentions "racial purity" as Germany's concern but does not "make a plea" for it, and that he never described Hitler as "a source of inspiration". The latter are Christophe Jaffrelot's words of interpretation, for this passage is obviously based on Christophe Jaffrelot: The Hindu Nationalist Movement (Viking, Delhi 1996, now by far the most-consulted source among Western India watchers), p.54: "Here Golwalkar claims inspiration from Hitler's ideology: 'To keep up the purity of the race..'".

That alleged Golwalkar quotations turn out to be excerpted from the invective of his critics, is symptomatic of Hindutva-watching in general: first-hand information is spurned in favour of hostile second-hand claims made by unscrupled commentators. In most journalistic and academic publications on Hindutva, the number of direct quotations is tiny in comparison with quotations from secondary, hostile sources.

2. The RSS and ethnic cleansing

2.1. No privileges for the minorities

The single oftest-quoted Hindutva statement in the whole Hindutva-watching literature is definitely the first one quoted above from Golwalkar's We, about non-Hindus being requested to "glorify" the Hindu culture, and otherwise "stay in the country" though "without privileges, not even citizen's rights". While certainly open to criticism, the meaning of this passage is by no means as terrifying and inhuman as the critics insinuate. It has nothing to do with genocide or ethnic cleansing, for it says explicitly that the non-Hindus "may stay in the country".

Further, it says that the religious minorities must "not claim any privileges", something with which any democrat and secularist would wholeheartedly agree: privileges on the basis of creed are against the equality principle which is fundamental to the law system of a modern state. It is one of the absurdities of Indian "secularism" that it contains a number of communal inequalities in law:

   Separate family law codes for Muslims, Christians and Parsis, epitomized by the Muslim right to polygamy; this constitutes the denial of the very first defining principle of the secular state, viz. legal equality of all citizens regardless of religion;

   exemption of mosques and churches (as opposed to Hindu temples) from intervention in their management and appropriation of their funds by the secular authorities;

     special safeguards of the communal character (in recruitment of teachers and students, in the contents of the curriculum) of Christian and Muslims schools all while retaining their subsidies, which are denied to Hindu denominational schools (Art. 30 of the Constitution);

  a large number of occasional advantages for the minorities in everyday political practice, e.g. subsidies for the Muslims who perform the pilgrimage to Mecca, as contrasted with pilgrimage taxes to be paid by Hindus going to Amarnath and other Hindu places of pilgrimage.

Before independence, the situation was even worse, with separate electorates and highly disproportionate privileges conceded to Anglo-Indians and other Christians and to the Muslim community. It was perfectly legitimate for Golwalkar in 1938 to champion the cause of genuine secularism by denouncing the system of privileges on the basis of religion. Indeed, the remarkable phenomenon is not that Hindus stand up for legal equality and against the Muslim privileges, but that supposedly scholarly and objective India-watchers, almost to a man, decry equality before the law (esp. a Common Civil Code, that long-standing Hindu demand) as "communal" and support minority privileges on the basis of religion as "secular", in blatant disregard for the dictionary meaning of "secularism" and "communalism".

2.2. The Muslims as non-citizens

The only disputable part in Golwalkar's oftest-quoted line is that the minority people must "not claim even citizen's rights". This would mean that Muslims would get the same status in India which Christians and Jews (and sometimes Pagans) "enjoy" under the Zimma (charter of toleration) dispensation in an Islamic state: they may "stay in the country" (the native country of the hospitable Hindus c.q. the native country of the dispossessed Zimmis, who are suffered to stay in their own country which Islam took from them), but far from claiming any privileges, they do not even enjoy citizen's rights.

Indeed, the Shari'a prescribes, as a matter of consensus between all the Islamic schools of jurisprudence, that Jews and Christians can be tolerated by the Islamic state, on condition of the payment of a high toleration tax, the jizya, plus the observance of more than twenty humiliating restrictions. It is an intrinsic part of this status that they are excluded from the political decision-making process. To a greater or lesser degree, this inequality has been reinstated in most Muslim countries after decolonization.

So, at worst, one could interpret the controversial paragraph in Guruji's book as amounting to a proposal for reciprocity with the treatment which non-Muslims get in Islamic states. Any indignation about the paragraph should therefore imply the same indignation about the treatment which Islam prescribes to the non-Muslims. Conversely, protest against Golwalkar's line without protest against the Islamic provisions, which are not an individual writer's little idea but actual law enforced in Islamic states for thirteen centuries as well as in several dozen "modern" states, would demonstrate hypocrisy and double standards.

But Golwalkar doesn't even say that he wants to go as far as to inflict on Muslims the same treatment which the Shari'a prescribes for non-Muslims. The expression "not even citizen's rights" strictly means that he would give Muslims the same status which residents with a foreign passport have: protection under the law, but no participation in political decision-making. But he would not prohibit them from riding a horse, or from bearing arms, or from keeping communal meetings where non-members are excluded, to name some of the restrictions which the Khilafat imposed on Zimmis.

The denial of citizen's rights to Muslims who claim separate nation status is criticzed by M.S. Aney in his foreword to Golwalkar's book: "No modern jurist or political philosopher or student of constitutional law can subscribe to the proposition which the author has laid down in Chapter V. (...) No person born in the country, of parents whose ancestors enjoyed rights of citizenship for centuries together, can be treated as a foreigner in a modern state on the ground that it follows a religion different from that of the majority population which naturally dominates and controls it." (We, p.xiv-xv)

Embarrassing as Aney's remark may have been for Golwalkar, he does confirm our thesis that Golwalkar was basically applying to the Muslims an arrangement developed by Islam itself: "Except perhaps in States following Islam which has as one of its articles of faith the supremacy of the true believer over the infidel, and which precludes the possibility of any true national fellowship between the convert to Mohammedanism and an infidel follower of another religion, one can not expect recognition of such a fanatic position in the constitution of any civilised state." (We, p.xv-xvi) Aney reprimands Golwalkar for stooping to the uncivilized level of the intrinsically "fanatic" position of the Islamic states.

Of course, Golwalkar's scheme does not live up to modern standards of secularism. That is why it was never reiterated in later RSS or BJP documents. Maybe it is also why Golwalkar's booklet was withdrawn from circulation. But those who say that it amounts to "fascism", will only sound convincing if they add that by these standards, the Shari'a is far more consistently "fascist".

2.3. The context: the Two-Nation theory

In judging Golwalkar's position, one should keep in mind the political atmosphere in 1938, when the book under discussion was written. Though the Muslim League had not yet officially adopted the Pakistan resolution (which it would in March 1940), the talk of a separate state for the Indian Muslims was already very much in the air. The basis for this Muslim demand was the so-called Two-Nation Theory, which held that Muslims and Hindus are two separate nations, to whom the principle of the "self-determination of nations" should apply. This principle was internationally accepted since it was applied in the dismemberment of the Austro-Hungarian, Czarist and Ottoman empires; it was also verbally supported by Lenin and theoretically applied in the establishment of the Soviet Union. Therefore, these two nations, Hindu and Muslim, would each have a right to its own "nation-state".

To the British rulers, this view seemed eminently reasonable: as Jinnah had pointed out, the Muslims were distinct from the Hindus by religion, language, dress, food habits, marriage customs, inheritance laws, holy days, arts, and they often lived in separate neighbourhoods, so that they lived an entirely separate life and were fit to be considered a separate nation. And while it was reasonable to the modern British rulers, it was equally self-evident to the guardians of Islamic orthodoxy (from Abul Kalam Azad to Abul Ala Maudoodi): the Quran and Hadis unambiguously describe and define the Muslim community as a separate nation (ummah). It is a different matter that in the orthodox view, the Muslim nation should lord it over other nations the way they had done in the Middle Ages, so that, rather than fleeing the Hindus by creating a separate state, they should try to capture power in the whole of united India. Fact remains that the orthodox agreed with the modernist Jinnah and with the latter's British allies on the theoretical principle that the Muslims constituted a separate nation.

The "fascist" aberration which Golwalkar made in the paragraph under discussion actually consists in accepting the Muslim-cum-British view of the Muslims' separate nationhood, and thinking through its implications for the status of Muslims in a Hindu state. To him (at least at the time of writing), the Muslims were indeed, in accordance with their own self-definition, a nation separate from the Hindu nation, and it logically followed that they could not be full citizens of a state constituted by and for the Hindu nation. Most Muslims supported the two-nation theory (the overwhelming majority of the Muslim electorate voted for the Muslim League in 1946, while no sizable section of the non-enfranchised lower-class Muslims expressed its opposition, on the contrary), so it was on their own premise that they could not be full citizens of a non-Islamic Indian state,-- unless they changed their attitude and chose to identify with India rather than with the Ummah.

Golwalkar explicitly gave them that option: the Muslims may glorify Hindu culture, and only "otherwise", in case they refuse to identify themselves as Indians rather than as Muslims, does he explicitate the alternative option of staying within the country without citizen's rights. If giving the Muslims a choice between their country and their religion seems unjustified, it may be noted that the same choice was given to President Kennedy, the first Roman Catholic president of the USA, and for this reason suspected by Protestants of being an agent of the Popish Plot for world domination. He was asked whether his loyalty was primarily with his country or with his Roman Catholic religion, and he replied without hesitation that in case of conflict between the two, "I would choose my country". This is exactly what Golwalkar expected of the Indian Muslims, in which case he would treat them as full citizens. It is only in case they refused this first loyalty to India that he provided for a second-best option of staying within the country in a kind of Zimmi status, without citizen's rights.

3. Did Golwalkar applaud Hitler?

At first sight, Guruji's seemingly laudatory reference to Nazi Germany is embarrassing. We will first look into the matter using only that information about his book We which those who are fond of quoting it, are willing to put at the reader's disposal. For now, let us accept the CPI(M)-BBC reading that he held the Nazi Germany of October 1938 up as an example to be emulated by the Hindus.

3.1. Outside perspectives on Nazi Germany

In 1938 Hitler was immensely popular worldwide as an economic miracle-worker and as a challenger to the supremacy of the colonial powers. The bad press he received, including the stories of his oppression of the Jews, was ascribed to the propaganda of the colonial powers, themselves veterans of many a massacre.

Those who remembered the British "information" about the Germans in World War 1 had reason enough to be skeptical. The world had been told about how German soldiers bayoneted Belgian babies and cut off the breasts of Belgian women, and how German factories had made soap out of the bodies of prisoners. In November 1918, when the Germans left Belgium, humanitarians came to the country to help the suffering population, but found to their surprise that after the initial brutalities of the conquest, the German occupation there had been fairly benign. The British depiction of the Teutonic furor turned out to be crass war propaganda. Consequently, for Indians struggling against Britain and out of touch with European politics, it was perfectly normal to ignore the British version of the facts concerning Nazi Germany.

In 1938, the mortal victims of Nazism were a thousand times fewer than those of Communism, yet numerous Western and westernized intellectuals could applaud Communism and call for its implementation in their homelands. Some of them knew they were lying, e.g. New York Times correspondent Walter Duranty privately estimated the death toll of the Ukrainian famine genocide of 1932-33 at ten million, but in his journalistic despatches he denied the genocide completely. Others, well, were they really that stupid? Jawaharlal Nehru could come home from a propaganda trip around Moscow as a zealous convert, blind to the omnipresent repression. The same wilful blindness afflicted numerous Western intellectuals. Against this background of widespread collaboration with the most monstrous political system in human memory, Golwalkar's alleged blindness to the horrible potential of pre-war and pre-Holocaust Nazism, even if verified, should warrant only limited censure.

It would have been different if he had defended Nazism while the Holocaust was taking place, which he didn't; or afterwards, which he didn't either -- unlike numerous Leftists with posh position from Harvard to JNU, who denied the crimes of Communism while they were taking place, thus thwarting effective protests and thereby helping the crimes to continue, and who often go on denying or minimizing them till today. Moreover, it can be shown that even in 1938, Golwalkar was by no means defending Nazism.

3.2. Hitler's popularity

Hitler was very popular in India. Elderly Indians have told me that in 1938, it was common among Indian boys to describe something brave and impressive asHitlerwala. Both Hindus and Muslims were enthusiastic about his aura of effectiveness, and both also had their own special reason for sympathizing with him.

Hindus, who already had a soft corner for the German pioneers of Sanskrit studies, heard that Hitler was a vegetarian and a celibate (not wasting his precious fluid but transforming it into spiritual energy), and that he had given a pride of place to the Indian term Arya and to the Hindu symbol, the Swastika. Certain sections of the freedom movement also saw Germany as a potential ally, regardless of its regime. Before 1918, the revolutionary terrorists often dreamed aloud of taking German help in their struggle against Britain, and it is no coincidence that the Congress leader who ended up collaborating with Germany in World War 2 was one who had been close to this movement: the Leftist Subhash Chandra Bose.

Muslims had been aroused into solidarity with their Palestinian co-religionists, who were increasingly in open conflict with the Jewish settlers, and supported Hitler's anti-Jewish line. There was also the Khaksar Muslim militia, founded on the model of the Nazi Sturmabteilung (SA, "storming department") by Allama Inayatullah Mashreqi, who had returned from Germany full of enthusiasm for the national resurgence he had witnessed there.

The Muslim League, while in alliance with the British, also had a soft corner for Hitler: "When Nehru returned after a brief visit to Europe in 1938, he was struck by the similarity between the propaganda methods of the Muslim League in India and the Nazis in Germany: 'The League leaders had begun to echo the Fascist tirade against democracy... Nazis were wedded to a negative policy. So also was the League. The League was anti-Hindu, anti-Congress, anti-national... The Nazis raised the cry of hatred against the Jews, the League [had] raised [its] cry against the Hindus.'" (B.R. Nanda: Gandhi and His Critics, OUP, Delhi 1993 (1985), p.88)

In spite of this Hitler craze, Golwalkar chose not to tap into this facile enthusiasm for a foreign model. In the circumstances, the remarkable thing is not that he mentioned Germany, but that he did not utter even one sentence of praise for Hitler, or the Nazi Party, or any specific Nazi policy. If he had been a Hitler fan, he could easily have said so in public: England was not yet at war with Germany (these were the days of"peace in our time" euphoria), and Indian public opinion would not have been scandalized. Yet, all he said was that developments in Germany proved that two nations living in one state are bound to come in conflict sooner or later, or "how well-nigh impossible it is" for two nations to co-exist within one state. The statement may be wrong (though the general tendency to conflict between peoples forced to coexist in one state is regularly verified by events, as lately in ex-Yugoslavia), but cannot honestly be read as an endorsement of the crimes of Nazism.

3.3. Golwalkar and the democratic ethnostate

And it is not just that Nazism was a foreign doctrine, which Golwalkar refused to entertain simply because of its foreignness. For, to the satisfaction of all those Hindutva-watchers who allege that Hindu nationalism is but a calk on Western ideologies, Golwalkar explicitly writes that Hindus should learn from the West. When introducing his discussion of the definition of "nation", Guruji explains that the Indian political class is confused about it, that their "notions today about the nation concept are erroneous" and "not in conformity with those of the Western Political Scientists", whom he implicitly accepts as normative. (We, p.16/p.21)

He summons the Indian nationalist leadership to ponder the question: "What is the notion of Democratic states about 'Nation'? Is it the same haphazard bundle of friend and foe, master and thief, as we in Hindusthan understand it to mean? Or do the political thinkers of the democratic West think otherwise?" (We, p.16/p.21) The "haphazard bundle of friend and foe" is a reference to the Congress position of denying the Hindu-Muslim conflict except as a British "divide and rule" ploy. Against this, Golwalkar's position is that the Hindu-Muslim disunity is very serious and a threat to India, which will either become homogeneous or get entangled in a civil war or some other sad fate awaiting multi-communal states. In practice: to avoid civil war and partition, the Muslims must be assimilated or somehow politically neutralized ("not even citizen's rights").

What Golwalkar is looking for, is the opinion of the democratic Westerners, and in particular those who have articulated the connection between democracy and the need for a homogeneous population, e.g. John Stuart Mill (Considerations on Representative Government, 1861, p.292-294): "Free institutions are next to impossible in a country made up of different nationalities. (...) it is in general a necessary condition of free institutions that the boundaries of governments should coincide in the main with those of nationalities." (Mill is mentioned as a source of inspiration for Hindu nationalists by M.S. Aney in his foreword to Golwalkar: We, p.ii.) That Golwalkar was so particular about looking to democratic authorities for advice is of course never mentioned in the secondary literature seeking to portray him as a Nazi.

To Golwalkar, the guidelines for steering India away from the looming abyss of Partition and civil war are not to be found in Nazi sources (of which he doesn't quote or mention any), nor in more traditional Rightist authors, nor of course in the confused and pseudo-democratic Congress leadership, but in the theorists of successful Western democracies. Underlying successful democracies is either a relatively homogeneous nation, as in the 19th-century unification of Italy (which was a democracy before the rise of Mussolini), or a strong mechanism of homogeneization, as in the American "melting-pot". Indeed, M.S. Aney (We, p.ii), who also mentions a long list of inspiring thinkers on nationhood in his foreword (and again none of them a Nazi), includes Israel Zangwill, the Anglo-Jewish playwringht who was both a Jewish nationalist and the author of The Melting-Pot (1908), a parable on assimilation.

As M.S. Aney writes (We, p.ii), the most important Western influence on the Hindu nationalist movement was the Italian nationalist Giuseppe Mazzini, "by common consent still regarded as the greatest interpreter of Nationality". Indeed, Lala Lajpat Rai wrote a brief biography of Mazzini, Surendranath Banerjee also wrote about him, and V.D. Savarkar himself translated Mazzini's autobiography into Marathi in 1907. Aney (We, p.iii) quotes Mazzini to give the flavour of his integrationist and harmonious vision: "Humanity is the association of peoples; it is the alliance of peoples in order to work out their missions in peace and love. To forget humanity is to suppress the aim of our labours, to cancel the nation is to suppress the instrument by which to achieve the aim."

This was hardly a fascist vision, on the contrary: "Fascism no longer believed as Mazzini did in the harmony of various national interests. It dedicated itself to the preparation for the 'inevitable' struggle that forms the life of nations." (Hans Kohn:Nationalism: Its Meaning and History, Krieger Publ., Malabar CA 1982 (1965), p.79) While the Hindu nationalists rejected Mahatma Gandhi's passive pacifism and envisaged the necessity of preparing for confrontation, they never entertained the nihilistic or vitalistic belief in war for war's sake which is so typical of Fascism.

Nor did they nurture grand schemes of empire, to name a related trait of Fascism, which had been born from Italy's demand for a larger share in the spoils of the Austro-Hungarian empire after World War 1, and which had embarked upon a policy of conquest in the Balkans and Africa. Nazi Germany, of course, pursued a Lebensraumpolicy; though at the time of Golwalkar's writing, it had only been limited to bringing German-speaking territories (Austria and Sudetenland) heim ins Reich, Hitler's sabre-rattling in preparation of larger conquests was widely audible. Fascism and Nazism believed in a permanent struggle between nations, bringing out the strongest on top; by contrast, RSS literature frequently mentions as one of Hindu India's glories the fact that no Indian ruler ever set out to conquer territories outside India. The Hindu nationalists had a vision of India taking its place in the comity of nations, not some high-strung dream of world conquest or other negative excesses of nationalism.

That is why Golwalkar (We, Ch.3-4) repeatedly invokes the authority of the League of Nations in explaining his vision of nationhood and international relations. This would be rather odd for a "fascist" in 1938, considering that Fascist Italy had left the League of Nations in 1937, defiantly turning its back on the very principles which Golwalkar was extolling.

3.4. Golwalkar and the Holocaust

Hitler became a symbol of absolute evil by the Shoah or Holocaust, the attempted extermination of the Jews and, in additional order, the Gypsies and other groups. Without that, he would have been just one of the warlords who take turns in their hundreds at brutalizing sections of humanity. In fact, he would have been one of the most successful dictators in history, considering his near-abolition of unemployment by means of public works, his restoration of national sovereignty and his unification of most German-speaking people within the borders of his Reich. At the time of Golwalkar's writing, Hitler's "final solution" only consisted of legal discriminations and vague plans to banish the Jews either to Madagascar or to Palestine (there were secret negotiations between Nazis and Zionists, as pro-Palestinian authors keep reminding us, vide Lenni Brenner: Zionism in the Age of the Dictators, Lawrence Hill Books, Chicago 1983), i.e. removing them from Germany rather than killing them.

Though the oppression of the Jews was already serious, in 1938 it was "only" of the same order as the oppression and expulsion of non-Muslims in Islamic states today. The leading opinion among World War 2 historians, the so-called "functionalist" school (as opposed to the "intentionalists" who believe that the Shoah had been planned since before Hitler's take-over), is that various policies vis-�-vis the Jews were tried out by Hitler, and that the decision to exterminate them was only developed in stages and in reaction to changing circumstances, in particular the war with the Soviet Union (from 22 June 1941) and with the USA (from 11 December 1941). Had the war somehow been averted, it is quite conceivable that a master plan for the resettlement of the Central-European Jews in some colonial domain would have been agreed upon between the European powers, and implemented. In 1938, the Shoah was not yet a reality, not even an articulate project, and by no means an inevitability.

When Golwalkar wrote that Germany was proving (in a way which he explicitly considered "shocking") the impossibility of culturally distinct nations to live together, he was not referring to the Shoah, which was still three years in the future, but to the removal of Jews from office, their loss of citizenship and their resulting exodus from Germany, phenomena paralleled by the treatment of non-Muslims in Muslim countries even today. And even these pre-War Nazi policies vis-�-vis the Jews were by no means recommended or approved by Golwalkar. At no point did he say that "pogroms are the answer" or that in India, on the German model, "expulsion of minority professors from the universities is the way to avert Partition".

Golwalkar neither applauded the fact that Germans were staging a struggle against Jews, nor the German perception of why the Jews were unwelcome to stay, much less the specific methods adopted by the Nazis vis-�-vis the "Jewish question" in any phase of their term in power. All he did was point out that the co-existence of two nations within the German state had led to conflict, and that this was an intrinsic liability of any such co-existence, proving the need to make nations homogeneous by assimilating the minorities into the national mainstream.

3.5. Golwalkar's assimilationism

Nothing indicates that Golwalkar understood the exact nature and antecedents of the anti-Jewish policies in Germany and other countries. The intricate story of anti-Judaism in Europe was beyond his politically uneducated intellect. Though many RSS people consider Guruji a great thinker, his assessment of contemporary political phenomena including Nazism was amateurish and poorly conceived when not downright mistaken. Rather, it seems he simply projected his Indian concerns on a world situation of which he knew little and understood less.

In particular, if he assumed that the cultural distinctness of the Jews in Germany could be equated with that of the Muslims in India, he was way off the mark (along with all the anti-RSS polemicists who keep on making that same equation). First of all, historically there was simply no comparison, for Germany had never been conquered and ravaged by the Jews the way India had been brutalized and oppressed by Islam. Coming to particulars, the Jews had become less and less distinct from the 18th century onwards, more and more assimilated, and therefore more and more part of German society including its upper layers. Without benefiting from any institutional privileges (another contrast with Muslims in India), they had worked their way to the top or at least to well-to-do positions in society.

Meanwhile, the Muslims in India had, ever since their ancestors' conversion from Hinduism, been increasingly dissimilating themselves from their mother society. Under British rule, when they were no longer in a position of power and prestige, they had been wilfully ghettoizing their own community, and this assertion of a separate identity had gained in intensity with the Khilafat (Caliphate restoration) and Tabligh(Islamic-purist propaganda) movements of the 1920s. In the 1930s, a new political articulation was given, viz. Muslim separatism crystallizing around the demand for Partition. This had no parallel at all in the situation of the Jews in Germany.

While Golwalkar wanted the Muslims to identify with India rather than with their transnational community, Hitler wanted to dis-identify the assimilated Jews with the German nation and to push them back into their transnational communal identity. The contrast can be illustrated with the aspect of physical recognizability. Hitler forced the Jews, who had long given up their distinctive clothing and hairstyle, to make themselves visible again by wearing the yellow David star. This was a practice modelled on the enforced recognizability imposed on the Jews in the medieval Islamic empire, typically by means of a yellow strip of cloth. (This is not a thing of the past: in October 1998, the Taliban government in Afghanistan imposed on the fifty remaining Hindu families in Kandahar the following dress code: "Under the Taliban decree, every Hindu in this southern Afghan city has to wear a yellow piece of cloth", according toIndian Express, 24-10-1998.) But in India, the vast majority of Muslims were readily recognizable as such, and every Tabligh sermon led to the sprouting of beards or the donning of veils on the faces of those Muslims who had not yet sufficiently dissimilated themselves from the Hindu mainstream.

Golwalkar says in so many words, in the very line which is always quoted to prove his Hitlerian leanings, that he wants "the foreign races in Hindusthan" to "adopt the Hindu culture and language" and to "lose their separate existence to merge in the Hindu race". His words indicate that he had swallowed the common Indian Muslims' self-definition as "foreign", which they have traditionally buttressed with faked genealogies leading up to the Prophet and his companions, and with Arabic names and dress codes and other wilfully foreign cultural elements. But the point is that he wants them to abandon these transnational affectations and to assimilate themselves into the majority culture, the very opposite of what Hitler wanted from the Jews.

If at all we need a comparison, Golwalkar's position is closer to that of the Jacobin rulers in Revolutionary France, who wanted the non-French (Basque, Breton, Corsican, Flemish, German) minorities in France's conquered border regions to assimilate. Their methods included prohibiting minorities' self-organization and the use of their languages in education; the latter prohibition is still in force in France. A related Jacobin streak in Golwalkar was his plea against the administrative division of India into linguistic states (grudgingly conceded in the 1950s by Jawaharlal Nehru), and in favour of a strictly unitary state. This is in stark contrast with the current decentralizing and federalist position of the BJP, e.g. its carving a new state Uttaranchal out of Uttar Pradesh. Mercifully, Golwalkar had no stated intention of using the French Revolutionary methods of oppression and terror.

At any rate, Golwalkar can be fully exonerated of the one thing which N. Ram, Sitaram Yechurey, the BBC and the whole host of India-watchers insinuate against him: support for National-Socialism in its historical meaning of a genocidal authoritarian regime. Whether he ever praised Hitler before the full facts became known, we shall examine shortly, but even the professional critics of the RSS have to admit implicitly that he never praised Hitler after the Nazi crimes had become known to the larger public: apart from the worn-out 1938 quote under consideration, they have nothing to show.

4. Golwalkar vs. Hitler

But did Golwalkar in 1938 see Nazi Germany as an example to be followed? If we do not just focus on the selected quotation (as we are led to do by those who made the selection in the first place), but read the whole book, we find that Golwalkar is definitely not asking the Hindus to emulate Nazi Germany.

4.1. Golwalkar's role models

When faced with embarrassing quotations (e.g. from the Quran), people often allege that these have been "quoted out of context", mostly without saying what that context is and how it would change the meaning of the quoted part. In this case however, the context does change the meaning of Golwalkar's offensive line considerably. It is not without good reason that those who quote the offending passage, from the CPI(M) to the BBC, keep the entire context outside the reader's view. So now, we will go beyond the limits which they have tried to impose on this debate (and which the RSS has unwittingly accepted by its refusal to re-examine and discuss the book), and see what information about Golwalkar's relation with Hitler is offered in the unquoted paragraphs.

The third chapter of We is devoted to demonstrating that five attributes are present in all successful nation-states: country, race, religion, culture, language. It is in this context that Golwalkar verifies his criteria for a number of countries, including Germany but also England and the Soviet Union (where "socialism is modern Russia's religion" and "their prophet is Karl Marx", We, p.37/p.45), with the Nazi pre-1939 situation being just one variety of nation-building among others.

What strikes the educated reader is the clumsiness of Golwalkar's attempt to straitjacket the rather different situations in these countries into his preconceived scheme, as well as his confused and defective knowledge about them. For an example of the lack of clarity in his argument: while being opposed to English imperialism and specifically complaining about the "notorious" British propensity to impose the English language, in Ireland and Wales as much as in Calcutta and Mumbai, he still upholds "the Englishman's pride in his 'national' language" as a model for the Hindus. (We, p.34/p.42)

For an example of his lack of factual knowledge: he claims that "the Russian nation adheres with religious fervour" to Communism, at a time when Stalin had just murdered millions of Russians and Ukrainians, and when popular enthusiasm for Communism fell short of "religious fervour" by a rather large margin. (We, p.37/p.45) This alleged anti-Communist did not even know that Russia had been turned Communist by brute force (the October 1917 coup d'�tat a.k.a. "Revolution") rather than by the people's will. Not misguided political sympathies but utter amateurishness in his analysis of world politics is the verdict which we can deduce from a close reading of his book.

Golwalkar's opinion on Hitler should be read against its own background, just like that of an American student who travelled around Europe in the 1930s and who wrote in a letter to his parents that Communism is the right system for Russia, fascism is right for Italy and Germany, and democracy is the thing for England and the US; his name was John F. Kennedy. That "the real is rational", that somehow the existing order is God-given and right, that somehow all nations have got the regimes they deserve, is unfortunately a very common prejudice. At that time, Communism's victims were counted in millions, Nazism's in hundreds, yet both JFK and Golwalkar didn't even think of questioning the legitimacy of the Bolshevik regime. The most reprehensible thing about both JFK's and Guru Golwalkar's utterances, taking into account the information then available to them, was their unquestioning acceptance of Stalinism as the legitimate and fitting political system for Russia.

4.2. Golwalkar on Czechoslovakia

Some parts of the book conclusively refute the thesis that Golwalkar was a Hitler supporter. First of all, one of the countries in his list of models of nation-building to be studied by Hindus is Czechoslovakia, one of Hitler's first victims. And there, his sympathies, unlike Hitler's, are divided between the Sudeten Germans and the Czechs.

Here again, selective quoting has done the job of misleading the readers and creating a different impression. What is sometimes quoted is the following: "Austria for example was merely a province [in] the Germanic Empire. Logically Austria should not be an independent kingdom, but be one with the rest of Germany. So also with those portions, inhabited by Germans, which had been included, after the War, in the new state of Czechoslovakia. (...) This natural and logical aspiration has almost been fulfilled". (We, p.35/p.42-43)

Is this not terrible, Golwalkar openly supporting the Anschluss of Austria and Sudetenland? Actually, no. If Hitler became a synonym for horror and evil, it is not because he fulfilled the wish of the Austrians and Sudeten Germans of joining Germany. After World War 1, the Austrian parliament had voted with the largest possible majority in favour of joining Germany. This democratic choice was overruled by the victorious powers in the unilateral treaty of Versailles. Such are the complexities of history, that the killer of democracy in Germany implemented the democratic will of the Austrian people with his annexation of Austria.

As for Sudetenland, its separation from the Czech region was likewise applauded by the vast majority of the population concerned. It was entirely in keeping with the principle of "self-determination of nations". This principle had been conceded in the case of the Czechs' separation from Austria, but overruled by the victorious powers in the case of Sudetenland because they wanted to create large buffer states around Germany (also in the case of eastern Upper Silesia, annexed by the new state of Poland in spite of a plebiscite showing 60% support for accession to Germany).

If Hitler got as far as he had gotten by 1939, it was not purely by leaning on the forces of evil, but by occasionally and selectively allying himself with forces of reason, justice and democracy. Anyone with a sense of fairness could see that the Versailles treaty was anything but a peace treaty; its premisse that Germany alone was responsible for World War 1, was factually incorrect, and its practical conclusions were likewise unjust. This is a decisive reason why the Western powers felt inhibited from stopping Hitler when he started undoing a number of Versailles clauses: restoration of German sovereignty over the Rhineland, annexation of Austria, de-annexation of Sudetenland from the new state of Czechoslovakia. Conquering colonial powers like England and France knew well enough that in similar circumstances, they themselves would have done the same thing.

However, Gowalkar's support to the Sudeten Germans' reunification with Germany is counterbalanced by his support to the cause of Czechoslovakia's unity and integrity. Golwalkar argues quite correctly that established nations victorious in the Great War do not concede to their ethnic minorities the "minority rights" devised by the League of Nations as binding on the newly created states. Thus, an American ambassador to the League is quoted articulating the principle of "completely natural assimilation" as the great unifier of the American nation, and asserting that this renders the League principle of minority rights inapplicable. (We, p.46/p.55; emphasis in the original)

This provides a background to Golwalkar's oft-quoted stricture against minority privileges, justified explicitly with reference to the assimilative approach of the major Western powers: "Naturally, there are no foreigners in these old Nations, and no one to tax the generosity of the Nation by demanding privileges as 'Minority communities' in the State. It is this sentiment which prompted the United States of America, England, France and other old nations to refuse to apply the solution of the Minorities problem arrived at by the League of Nations to their states." (We, p.46/p.54)

Golwalkar quotes with approval the warning against the principle of minority rights uttered in a speech at the League Council on 9 December 1925 by French delegate Paul Fauchille: "the recognition of rights belonging to minorities as separate entities, by increasing their coherence and developing in them a sense of their own strength, may provoke them to separate themselves from the state of which they form a part; and in view of the right of peoples to dispose of themselves, the recognition of the rights of these minorities runs a risk of leading to the disruption of states." (We, p.48-49/p.57)

To Fauchille's warning, he comments: "Prophetic words! How true they sound today after the recent developments in Europe, under the very nose of the League of Nations! The disastrous fate of the unfortunate Czechoslovakia (to which, as promised, we now refer) proves beyond the faintest shadow of a doubt, how hollow were the League's hopes and how justified the fears of Paul Fauchille." (We, p.49/p.57)

The alleged fanatic Golwalkar admits that there are two sides to the argument: "And yet the decision of the League on the minority rights was the most equitable and just that could be conceived of. But even this just and equitable arrangement, instead of fostering the assimilation of the minorities into the National community, only served to increase their coherence and create in them such a sense of their own strength, that it led to a total disruption of the state, the Sudeten German minority merging in Germany, the Hungarians in Hungary, in the end leaving the national Czechs to shift for themselves in the little territory left unto them." (We, p.49/p.57-58)

To Golwalkar, the lesson to be learnt from the "disastrous fate of unfortunate.

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Modi welcomes Japan's $35 billion push for India's inclusive growth

India Today - ‎8 hours ago‎
Prime Minister <a href=" Prime Minister Narendra Modi in Tokyo.In a joint statement after their summit-level talks in Tokyo on Monday, Prime Minister Narendra Modi and his Japanese counterpart Shinzo Abe said they have renewed ...

In Japan, Narendra Modi and Shinzo Abe bond over temple tour; will hold talks ...

Times of India - ‎14 hours ago‎
NEW DELHI: PM Narendra Modi will look to cement strategic and defence cooperation with Japan when he meets his counterpart Shinzo Abe on Monday for crucial summit talks. In a move not likely to go unnoticed in Beijing, India is all set to ink an ...

Japan and India vow to boost defence ties during summit

Reuters India - ‎6 hours ago‎
TOKYO (Reuters) - Japan and India agreed on Monday to strengthen defence ties as Asia's second and third biggest economies keep a wary eye on a rising China, with Prime Minister Narendra Modi lashing out at the "expansionism" of some nations.

China reacts guardedly to Narendra Modi's 'expansionist' remark in Japan

Livemint - ‎3 hours ago‎
"We have noted relevant information about Prime Minister Modi's visit to Japan. You just mentioned comments made by him I don't know what is he referring to," Chinese foreign ministry spokesman Qin Gang told a media briefing here when asked about ...

India, Japan to 'upgrade' defence cooperation

Economic Times - ‎5 hours ago‎
TOKYO: India and Japan today decided to "upgrade" and "strengthen" their defence cooperation as they asked officials to launch consultations to promote military equipment collaboration and accelerate discussions on modalities for the sale of Japanese ...

Japan promises 3.5 trillion yen for India's infrastructure projects

Livemint - ‎1 hour ago‎
Prime Minister Narendra Modi with Japan's Shinzo Abe meet delegates in JapanJapan has promised $33.58 billion investment for infrastructure projects, including building smart cities and help in introduction of bullet trains in India. Photo: Reuters.

No Nuclear Deal In PM Modi's Talks With Japanese Premier Shinzo Abe

NDTV - ‎9 hours ago‎
A civil nuclear energy pact with India would give Japanese nuclear technology firms such as Toshiba Corp and Hitachi Ltd access to India's fast-growing market as they seek opportunities overseas to offset an anti-nuclear backlash at home in response to the ...

Visit to strengthen historical ties & keep a check on China

Economic Times - ‎Aug 31, 2014‎
Pro-business instincts, nationalistic outlooks and a belief in reforming outmoded and hidebound ways of running government are other traits that lend an air of inspiration to the Modi-Abe pair. There are eerie historical parallels to this comradeship in the form ...

In Japan, PM Modi Proves He Never Forgets a Face

NDTV - ‎17 hours ago‎
At the Kinkaku-ji temple, the second Buddhist temple he visited today, Modi waded into a group of tourists. He patted a child, posed for photos before being introduced to the 83-year-old head priest Yasu Nagamori . "You are Mori, I amModi" is how the Prime ...

No nuke deal yet, but Japan offers Modi bullet trains

Hindustan Times - ‎14 hours ago‎
Japan also promised to remove six of India's space and defence-related entities from Japan's Foreign End User List. Earlier Modidelighted his Japanese hosts with an apparent swipe at China. Modi, addressing Japanese industrialists, said that expansionism ...

Narendra Modi's Japan visit

Times of India - ‎16 hours ago‎
On his first bilateral visit outside the subcontinent as the Prime Minister, Modi has a substantive agenda during the five-day trip which he hopes will "write a new chapter" in the bilateral relations and cooperation in the fields of defence, civil nuclear and ...

Modi's Japan visit 2014: Japan lifts ban on HAL and 5 other Indian entities

Economic Times - ‎4 hours ago‎
TOKYO: Japan today lifted ban on HAL and five other Indian entities, which had been imposed in the aftermath of the 1998 nuclear tests, amid Prime Minister Narendra Modi's assertion that cooperation between the two countries in defence and security will ...

PM Narendra Modi visits Japan

Indian Express - ‎Aug 30, 2014‎
In a pre-departure statement, Narendra Modi said, "I am keenly looking forward to my visit to Japan at the invitation of my good friend, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, for the annual summit between India and Japan." Pictured here, the Prime Minister waves before ...

PM Modi's 'Chai Pe Charcha' With Japan's Shinzo Abe

NDTV - ‎2 hours ago‎
PM Modi enjoys a cup of green tea next to Japan's PM Shinzo Abe in Omotesenke, one of the main schools ofJapanese tea ceremony, in Tokyo. (AFP). Tokyo: Prime Minister Narendra Modi, who has repeatedly highlighted that he used to be a tea seller early ...

Modi Visit Draws Pledges of Support From Japan

ABC News - ‎12 hours ago‎
Japan and India agreed Monday to step up their economic and security cooperation as visiting Prime Minister Narendra Modi won pledges of support for his effort to revitalize the lagging Indian economy. Modi, who brought a delegation of more than a dozen ...

What PM Narendra Modi said at the joint press briefing with Japan PM Shinzo Abe

Economic Times - ‎1 hour ago‎
NEW DELHI: Thanking Japan Prime Minister Shinzo Abe for his invitation to visit Japan within 100 days of the NDA government, Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Monday said, "Japanese PM Shinzo Abe has promised to participate in India's 'inclusive growth' ...

India Prime Minister Modi wins pledges of support from Japan government ...

U.S. News & World Report - ‎10 hours ago‎
Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, right, watches Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi drink a bowl of green tea during a tea ceremony at a tea hut of the Omotesenke, one of the main schools of Japanese tea ceremony, in Tokyo Monday, Sept. 1, 2014.

Modi seeks Japan's help for 'inclusive vision' on first big trip

Reuters India - ‎Aug 31, 2014‎
"We will explore how Japan can associate itself productively with my vision of inclusive development in India," Modisaid before departing on Saturday for the five-day visit. He listed manufacturing, infrastructure and energy as key areas for cooperation. In his ...

Japan to Invest in Bullet Trains, Ganga Clean-up

NDTV - ‎1 hour ago‎
India's bullet train project will receive financial, technical and operational support from JapanJapan will invest $33 billion in five years in India, a chunk of which will go into PM Modi's pet projects for cleaning up the river Ganga and for developing smart cities.

'India-Japan understanding on N-deal ...

Economic Times - ‎2 hours ago‎
... Wassenaar Arrangement and Australia Group, with the aim of strengthening the international non-proliferation efforts.TOKYO: The "understanding" between India and Japan on civil nuclear issue has "improved", Prime Minister Narendra Modi today said, ...

PM Modi's Japan visit may not seal civil nuclear deal

Economic Times - ‎Aug 30, 2014‎
NEW DELHI: The India-Japan civilian nuclear deal may not be sealed during Prime Minister Narendra Modi's trip toJapan that begins on Saturday although discussions are on to bridge the core differences between the two sides over the proposed treaty, ...

PM in Japan, Day 1: Modi and Abe sign MoU to develop Varanasi into Kyoto-like ...

Indian Express - ‎Aug 30, 2014‎
Prime Minister Narendra Modi landed in Osaka on Saturday and, within hours, oversaw the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Japanese PM Shinzo Abe to turn Varanasi into a 'smart city' with help from Kyoto. The pact is in line with ...

Modi in Japan: In Kyoto, PM finds lessons for India's heritage cities

India Today - ‎Aug 31, 2014‎
Prime Minister <a href=" Prime Minister Narendra Modi as representative of Varanasi gifts map of city to Kyoto. Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Sunday praised the way the ancient Japanese city of Kyoto had been preserved, ...

Modi's Japan Visit and Why it is Critical for India….

Oneindia - ‎7 hours ago‎
The contrast could not have been starker. At a time when Pakistan is grappling with a massive internal strife and is heading towards either another military coup or total anarchy, the meeting of Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modiwith the Japanese Premiere ...

Indo-Japan ties scale new heights as Modi, Abe sign key agreements on bullet ...

IBNLive - ‎7 hours ago‎
Tokyo: Japan and India, Asia's second and third largest economies signed five major agreements during Prime Minister Narendra Modi's visit to the east Asian nation. A deal on bringing Japan's high speed bullet trains to India signed between the 'two most ...

PM Modi's Japan visit: Agreement reached on strengthening strategic ties

Economic Times - ‎9 hours ago‎
In a sign of their close ties, the two leaders greeted each other with a bear hug when they met on Saturday inJapan's ancient capital of Kyoto for an informal dinner. Modi is one of three people that Abe follows on Twitter, while the Indian leader admires Abe's ...

Modi goes to Japan, takes an indirect swipe at China

Washington Post (blog) - ‎4 hours ago‎
NEW DELHI — Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi loves all things Japanese. The bonhomie between Modi and his "old friend" Shinzo Abe, the Japanese prime minister, was evident during his five-day visit that began Saturday. The two inked business ...

Modi visits ancient Buddhist temple in Japan

Economic Times - ‎Aug 31, 2014‎
KYOTO : On the second day of his Japan tour, Prime Minister Narendra Modi today visited two prominent ancient Buddhist temples here - Toji and Kinkakuji - offering prayers and mingling with the common people and tourists. The dress-conscious Modi was ...

Nuke deal or not: Why PM Narendra Modi's visit to Japan was a big hit

Firstpost - ‎2 hours ago‎
There are two ways of looking at Prime Minister Narendra Modi's ongoing Japan visit and why he has been able to take the Indo-Japan relationship to a never before trajectory in such a short time. But whichever way you look at it, the hard fact is that Modihas ...

PM Modi's Japan visit: Creation of special management team for Japan under ...

Economic Times - ‎12 hours ago‎
TOKYO: Prime Minister Narendra Modi Monday announced the creation of a special management team exclusively for Japan under the PMO. Addressing business leaders here, Modi said: "The new government wants to reform itself and move forward.

Japan PM Shinzo Abe dividing China, India: Report

Economic Times - ‎Aug 31, 2014‎
However, Modi is more inclined to attract investment from Japanese firms to help with the manufacturing industry. "All in all, the Japan-India relationship, in the context of current international politics, witnesses too many uncertain actors in its development," it ...

India, Japan sign key agreements, PM Narendra Modi says two countries to ...

Zee News - ‎1 hour ago‎
Tokyo: On the third day of Prime Minister Narendra Modi's ongoing five-day visit to Japan, the two nations renewed their centuries old ties by agreeing to extend cooperation on a wide range of areas and inked the Tokyo Declaration for Global Partnership.

PM Narendra Modi woos Tokyo: India, Japan to elevate strategic ties, speed up ...

Deccan Chronicle - ‎5 hours ago‎
Tokyo: India and Japan on Monday agreed to enhance their defence and strategic cooperation to a new level during talks between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and his counterpart Shinzo Abe, who also decided to speed up negotiations on civil nuclear ...

Narendra Modi's Japan visit: Planning to develop heritage cities in India on the ...

Zee News - ‎Aug 31, 2014‎
Kyoto: Prime Minister Narendra Modi, who is on a four-day official tour of Japan, said on Sunday that not only Kyoto and Varanasi, Kyoto and Indian universities, industries & research institutes can also work together. PM Modi today received a presentation ...

100-days of Modi sarkar: India sees GDP growth, economic turnaround, says PM

India Today - ‎3 hours ago‎
Narendra ModiAs the Prime Minister Narendra Modi completed his 100 days in office, he had a lot to elaborate on his achievements during his visit to Japan. "See the work done in 100 days of my government. Earlier, the GDP used to hover around 5-5.4 per ...

New Delhi, Tokyo try to iron out nuclear-deal today

Indian Express - ‎18 hours ago‎
Prime Minister Narendra Modi flew into Tokyo on Sunday for crucial summit talks with his Japanese counterpart Shinzo Abe after an overnight stay in Kyoto where he visited two ancient Buddhist temples. In a significant gesture, Abe accompanied him to these ...

PM's Japan tour: 'Teacher' Narendra Modi visits Tokyo school, ahead of summit ...

Zee News - ‎18 hours ago‎
Tokyo: Ahead of significant summit-level talks with Japanese PM Shinzo Abe slated to be held later on Monday, Prime Minister Narendra Modi donned the hat of a school teacher as he began his third day of Japan trip by visiting an ancient 136-year-old ...

Indian media back stronger ties with Japan

BBC News - ‎15 hours ago‎
Papers are highlighting Japan's "warm reception" to Narendra Modi on his first visit to the country as prime minister. Mr Modi arrived at Kansai airport in Osaka on Sunday before heading to nearby Kyoto where his Japanesecounterpart Shinzo Abe received ...

PM Narendra Modi arrives in Japan on five-day visit

Indian Express - ‎Aug 30, 2014‎
Prime Minister Narendra Modi arrived in Kyoto, Japan on Saturday on a visit which is expected to see new vistas being opened in bilateral ties with particular focus on cooperation in the fields of defence, civil nuclear and infrastructure besides commerce.

Why Japan is wooing Prime Minister Narendra Modi

Hindustan Times - ‎Aug 31, 2014‎
Anti-Chinese feeling has grown rapidly in Japan under Abe, and the nationalistic PM wants to build coalitions against perceived hegemony by the new regional bully. "Japan has one major card to play against the Chinese -- its alliance with the United States.

Japan and India host trade and security talks

The Guardian - ‎12 hours ago‎
Narendra Modi and Shinzo Abe are holding formal talks in Tokyo to cement a blossoming relationship between India and Japan cemented with a shared conservative agenda. Modi, who hopes his market-focused policies will boost India's floundering ...

To Japan With Love: PM Narendra Modi's Visit To The Land of Rising Sun

NDTV - ‎Aug 31, 2014‎
Prime Minister Narendra Modi is on a four day tour of Japan. He is seeking to build deeper ties between the two Asian economic giants. In a special gesture, the Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe flew down to Kyoto to personally greet Mr Modi. In the ...

NaMo's Japan visit: Tokyo to finance specific projects

Economic Times - ‎Aug 29, 2014‎
NEW DELHI: Prime Minister Narendra Modi's dream of securing $1.7 trillion from Japan for creation of a fund that would support the country's economy may not become a reality with Tokyo discouraging the plan and instead asking Delhi to present a list of ...

Modi takes 'swipe' at China, deplores 'expansionist' tendency of some nations

Times of India - ‎9 hours ago‎
TOKYO: Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Monday deplored the "expansionist" tendency among some countries which "encroach" upon seas of others, in oblique comments against China which is having a maritime dispute with Japan. "The whole world ...

I know what government-investors coordination is, says PM Modi on Japan visit

Economic Times - ‎10 hours ago‎
"I understand the coordination needed between government and investors," Modi, speaking in Hindi, said at a luncheon hosted by the Keidanren or the Japanese Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Japan-India Business Cooperation Committee.

Understanding between India, Japan on nuclear deal has improved: PM ...

Daily News & Analysis - ‎4 hours ago‎
The "understanding" between India and Japan on civil nuclear issue has "improved", Prime Minister Narendra Modisaid on Monday, after talks with his counterpart Shinzo Abe even as the much-anticipated remained deal remained elusive. The two leaders ...

PM Narendra Modi invites Japanese investors to India

Times - ‎8 hours ago‎
Wooing Japanese investors with promise of speedy clearances, Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Monday (September 1) proposed co-opting two Japanese nominees in a decision-making team under PMO dedicated to facilitate investments. The Prime ...

PM Narendra Modi 'overwhelmed' by Abe Shinzo's hospitality in Japan

Zee News - ‎5 hours ago‎
Tokyo: Prime Minister Narendra Modi was swept over by the hospitality of his Japanese counterpart and said on Monday that it indicated Abe Shinzo's special affection for India. Modi posted on the micro-blogging site Twitter - "Words can't describe PM Abe ...

PM Modi in Japan, Kyoto-Varanasi partnership pact inked

Times of India - ‎Aug 30, 2014‎
KYOTO: Prime Minister Narendra Modi began a five-day visit to Japan on Saturday, a day that saw the inking of a partnership agreement between Varanasi, one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, and Kyoto, which was the capital ofJapan ...

India hopes ties with Japan reach ful...

Economic Times - ‎Aug 30, 2014‎
KYOTO: Warmth, mutual admiration and convergence of views marked the meeting between Prime Minister NarendraModi and his Japanese counterpart Shinzo Abe Saturday as India hoped the two sides would strive to achieve in five years the unrealised ...

Photos: Narendra Modi Plays His Own Tune in Japan

Wall Street Journal (blog) - ‎14 hours ago‎
India's Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, began his visit to Japan with a hug, embracing his Japanese counterpart, Shinzo Abe, after arriving in the ancient city of Kyoto. Mr. Modi and Mr. Abe, who shared an informal dinner on Saturday evening, hope to tighten ...

Modi shares Japan visit titbits on social media

India Today - ‎Aug 30, 2014‎
Indian Prime Minister <a href="http://indiatoday.intoday. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo AbePrime Minister Narendra Modi on Saturday took to social media amid his jampacked schedule to share details on Day 1 of ...

Modi gets down to business in Japan, crucial deals likely

India Today - ‎12 hours ago‎
<a href=" Narendra Modi delivering the keynote address at Business Luncheon, in TokyoAfter the bonhomie between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and his Japanese counterpart Shinzo Abe over the weekend in Kyoto, the ...

7 things Modi wants to achieve in Japan

India Today - ‎Aug 30, 2014‎
Prime Minister Narendra Modi speaks to Japanese journalists in New Delhi on Friday.Narendra Modi's five-day trip to Japan, which began on Saturday, is not just another foreign visit of the Indian Prime Minister. It will be one of the cornerstones of India's ...

PM Modi visits ancient Buddhist temple in Japan

The Hindu - ‎Aug 30, 2014‎
Ancient and modern. There's little doubt that Prime Minister Narendra Modi's message is nothing but well calibrated. On Sunday morning, Mr. Modi sent two messages from Kyoto. One from the Toji temple in Kyoto – that of peace and tranquility from an ancient ...