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Zia clarifies his timing of declaration of independence

What Mujib Said

Jyoti basu is DEAD

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"The Day India Burned"--A Documentary On Partition Part-1/9

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Partition of India - refugees displaced by the partition

Wednesday, November 18, 2015

https://youtu.be/aa8fIoC9HEY #रोजावा की क्रांति #ISIS may not be defeated with # religious polarization#War not against ISIS# America created # Israel joins# G 20 funding #Oil War! Rojava: A Sincere Revolution https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CcLPyfgXBAk Pushing Back the Islamic State: The Battle for Rojava (Dispatch 1) https://news.vice.com/video/pushing-back-the-islamic-state-the-battle-for-rojava-dispatch-1 Pushing Back the Islamic State: The Battle for Rojava (Dispatch 1) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fHaaKR1HaFk Real threat triggered by Political leadership most arrogant!We are into the war as media reports that the ISIS might not have a direct presence in India but intelligence agencies fear that terror groups operating in the country can be used by Daesh for carrying out strikes in India similar to the Paris massacre. Due for implementation from January 1, 2016.All the central government employees will get reason to smile soon! However, the government employees and pensioners

https://youtu.be/aa8fIoC9HEY


#रोजावा की क्रांति #ISIS may not be defeated with # religious polarization#War not against ISIS# America created # Israel joins# G 20 funding #Oil War!


Rojava: A Sincere Revolution

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CcLPyfgXBAk


Pushing Back the Islamic State: The Battle for Rojava (Dispatch 1)


https://news.vice.com/video/pushing-back-the-islamic-state-the-battle-for-rojava-dispatch-1


Pushing Back the Islamic State: The Battle for Rojava (Dispatch 1)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fHaaKR1HaFk


Real threat triggered by Political leadership most arrogant!We are into the war as media reports that the ISIS might not have a direct presence in India but intelligence agencies fear that terror groups operating in the country can be used by Daesh for carrying out strikes in India similar to the Paris massacre.


Due for implementation from January 1, 2016.All the central government employees will get reason to smile soon! However, the government employees and pensioners are in for disappointment as the report is expected to propose a 15 percent hike only with retrenchment ensured!


तालिबान,अलकायदा की तरह हिंदू तालिबान भी अमेरिकी उत्पादन है और इस्लाम के साथ साथ गरीब दुनिया के सफाये के लिए ISIS अमेरिका और इजराइल का ब्रह्मास्त्र है।


पुतिन के खुलासे के बाद भी अगर हम यह नहीं समझ रहे हैं तो बोका हरम और पेरिस और बेरुत, लेबनान, इराक, अफगानिस्तान, मिस्र, लीबिया,जार्डन,सीरिया,तुर्की और यूनान में जो हुआ,वह ग्रीक त्रासदी का मजा हम भी लेंगे।आतंकी हमलो में जितने मारे गये,मारे जा रहे हैं,बोकोहरम में उससे ज्यादा लोग मारे जा रहे हैं तो भारत में भी राष्ट्र की हिंसा के शिकार लोग रंगबिरंगी हिंसा ,हमलों,दंगा फसाद में मारे जाने वालों से कहीं बहुत ज्यादा है।


हाथ कंगन को आरसी क्या ?

पढ़ लें समकाीन तीसरी दुनिया का सितंबर अंक और इजराइली अमेरिकी कनेक्शन के वीडियो सबूत पेश करने के बाद बाकी सबूत भी हम लाइव शेयर कर रहे हैं जो हैंगआउट पर लाइव स्ट्रीम भी है।

पलाश विश्वास

आज प्रवचन दोपहर बाद ही शुरु कर पा रहा हूं क्योंकि आज हफ्तेभर बाद सब्जियां लाने सोदपुर हाट गया तो तमाम कारोबारियों,सब्जीवालं,मिठाईवालों,किरानेवालों के सात गपशप  और उनके सवालों के जवाब में वहीं प्रवचन हो गया।चाय भी उनके साथ पी।यह सरासर गलत है कि आम जनता कुछ नहीं समझती। मैं हूबहू यही बातें जब सार्वजिनक स्थान पर जनता के बीच करता हूं तो वे इसे बखूब समझते हैं और मैं सही सलामत भी हूं।इसका मतलब यह हुआ कि हम जनता से संवाद की स्थिति बना ही नहीं पा रहे हैं।जनता को जब सच मालूम होगा तो सारे के सारे किले ध्वस्त हो जायेंगे।

बहरहालएफडीआई बाबा ने भले ही अपने टायटैनिक हाथ दसों दिशाओं में लहराकर हिंदुत्व के वैश्विक मनुस्मृति आर्डर के आवाहन के साथ ISIS को खत्म करने के लिए भारत की युद्धघोषणा करके मध्यपूर्व की युद्धभूमि हिंदुस्तान की सरजमीं को बना दिया है,ISIS को अमेरिका और इजराइल मदद देता रहेगा तेल युद्ध की खातिर।

इस अंक में:

अपनी बात

समकालीन तीसरी दुनिया के बारे में

कन्नड़ विद्वान कलबुर्गी की हत्या का विरोध् करो!


आवरण कथा

रोजावा की क्रांति - प्रकाश राज देवकोटा

इस्लामिक स्टेट के खिलापफ कोबाने का प्रतिरोध्

महिलाओं का साझा मोर्चा

टर्की में महिलाओं का हथियारबंद दस्ता


सामयिकी

अमीरदास का गरीब आयोग - अभिषेक श्रीवास्तव

यौन अपराध् और न्यूनतम सरकार - मुशर्रप़फ अली


मानव अध्किार

एक और ब्लॉगर की हत्या

पंजाब में सूरज सिंह का आमरण अनशन - देवाशीष


विशेष रिपोर्ट

छिटमहलः दशकों बाद मिली पहचान - अभिषेक रंजन सिंह

जेलखाना, गोलियों की बौछार और कत्लगाह

बंगाल की क्रांतिकारी कविताएं

1970 के दशक के कुछ कवियों मसलन आलोक बसु, इंद्र चौधरी, मुरारी

मुखोपाध्याय, वीरेंद्र चट्टोपाध्याय, बिपुल चक्रवर्ती, शोभन सोम, तुषार चंद्र,

मनोरंजन विश्वास की कविताएं

अनु. कंचन कुमार

पृष्ठः 30

कविता

अल्पसंख्यक - शोभा सिंह


प्रसंग

गुजरातः संजीव भट्ट की सेवाएं समाप्त - अनंत राय


इतिहास

शहीदों के इतिहास को बदलने की साजिश - सुधीर विद्यार्थी


साहित्य

गोदानः जीवन यथार्थ का महाआख्यान - रामू सिद्धार्थ

कविता 16 मई के बाद

कानपुर में पफासीवाद विरोधी कविताएं


The White House on Sunday said the US agrees with France that the terrorist attacks in Paris are "an act of war" and demands stronger global commitments to combat the Islamic State group that carried out the attacks. India joins the war without invitation and without any provocation!


Latest from Paris: The mourning continues as the combing operation all over France and Men were still holed up in an apartment in northern Paris today after shooting broke out during a raid by anti-terrorist police investigating the Paris attacks, police sources said. The operation, which began before dawn in Saint Denis, was still ongoing at 0615 am local time (0515 GMT).


Real threat triggered by Political leadership most arrogant!We are into the war as media reports that the ISIS might not have a direct presence in India but intelligence agencies fear that terror groups operating in the country can be used by Daesh for carrying out strikes in India similar to the Paris massacre.


Following the savage attack in Paris in which at least 129 people were killed, the Union home ministry alerted state governments on ISIS backed terrorist strikes on Indian soil



Rojava in resistance against ISIS created by America, assisted by Israel and funded by developed world and no less than 40 nations engaged in the loot of oil in the middle east,the oil war fund ISIS including G20 Nations.Putin exposed.Confirmed!


And the Kurds are most interested in creating their own homeland in northern Syria, which they call Rojava. That means that when they liberate lands from ISIS, it can't immediately be guaranteed that they will welcome back the Sunnis who used to live .


2016 Hopefuls Hit Obama On ISIS While Trying To Replicate His Plan

Seriously, there have to be some other ideas.

<span class='image-component__caption' itemprop="caption">2016 Republican presidential candidates have attacked President Barack Obama for not doing enough to fight ISIS, but failed to outline an alternate approach. </span>MORRY GASH/ASSOCIATED PRESS2016 Republican presidential candidates have attacked President Barack Obama for not doing enough to fight ISIS, but failed to outline an alternate approach.


WASHINGTON -- With Americans reeling from the news that the Islamic State group killed 129 people and wounded 352 in Paris on Friday, presidential candidates hoping to succeed President Barack Obama are scurrying to show they can manage the U.S. fight against the terrorist group better than he can.

That's difficult, though, because almost none of them -- Republican or Democrat -- haveelucidated a path forward that is notably different from the policies already in place.

Obama since August 2014 has built a coalition of more than 60 European and Arab allies to combat ISIS, authorized near-daily air strikes on its positions in Iraq and Syria, approved the deployment of U.S. advisers to Iraq and special forces to Syria, and sent aid to locals willing to tackle the extremists on the ground -- Kurdish peshmerga fighters and the Iraqi military in Iraq, and nationalist Sunni Arab groups and the Syrian Kurds in Syria.

On Monday, Obama dismissed calls for a full-scale ground invasion in Iraq and Syria andpromised instead an "intensification" of the current strategy.


http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/2016-presidential-election-isis_564a3c87e4b045bf3df05bd2?section=india&adsSiteOverride=in


Due for implementation from January 1, 2016.Salary linked to productivity meaning large scale retrenchment!The Seventh Pay Commission will likely submit its report on Friday, recommending higher salaries for nearly 4.8 million central government employees and 5.4 million pensioners.


All the central government employees will get reason to smile soon! However, the government employees and pensioners are in for disappointment as the report is expected to propose a 15 percent hike only with retrenchment ensured!



सितंबर का समकालीन तीसरी दुनिया का अंक मेरे सामने है और मैं लहूलुहान हूं।मुझे यह भी देखना पड़ रहा है कि भीष्म पितामह की तरह हमारे बड़े भाई आनंदस्वरुप वर्मा कंटकशय्या पर है और हम महाभारत में कुरुक्षेत्र के चक्रव्यूह में निःशस्त्र फंसे हैं।


देश को गोलबंद करना बहुत दूर की मंजिल है और हम तो समकालीन तीसरी दुनिया को बचाने के लिए प्रतिबद्ध जनपक्षधर ताकतों को लामबंद करने में भी बुरी तरह फेल है।


इसी तरह हस्तक्षेप के लिए भी कहीं से मदद की गुहार का जवाब नहीं आ पाया है।


हमारी लड़ाई जारी रखना बेशक मुश्किल है लेकिन हम यकीनन लड़ेंगे।हमेशा की तरह समकालीन तीसरी दुनिया की आवाज बुलंद होती रहेगी,यही उम्मीद है।


आज समकालीन तीसरी दुनिया के सितंबर अंक की कवर स्टोरी रोजावा की क्रांति इस वीडियो के फोकस में होगा।


फोकस  पेरिस का अपडेट,युद्ध लाइव और फोकस ISIS के खिलाफ क्रांतिकारी संघर्ष पर होगा।वीडियो क्लीपिंग यूट्यूब के सौजन्य से।कृपया डाउनलोड करके लिंक व्हाटअप,फेसबुक वगैरह में शेयर तो करें ही,जो जमीन पर लड़ाई कर रहे हैं,वे इसका प्रचार प्रसार भी करें।


हमने कल ISIS की जन्मकुंडली वीडियो सबूत के साथ बांच दी है।अमेरिका ने पैदा किया ISIS को।इजराइल ने इसे पाला पोसा।तो विकसित देश अवैध तेल कारोबार के लिए तल कुंओं पर अपने अपने वर्चस्व के लिए यह तेलयुद्ध लड़ रहे हैं।


हमारी कोई औकात नहीं है।लेकिन पुतिन भइया ने जी 20 देशों के शमिट में विश्वनेताओं की मौजूदगी में भरे हाट आतंक के अंधियारे कारोबार की हड़िया फोड़ दी है और हम्माम में सारे के सारे जिन्न महाजिन्न बिरंची बाबा वगैरह वगैरह नंगे ही निकले।


एफडीआई बाबा ने भले ही अपने टायटैनिक हाथ दसों दिशाओं में लहराकर हिंदुत्व के वैश्विक मनुस्मृति आर्डर के आवाहन के साथ ISIS को खत्म करने के लिए भारत की युद्धघोषणा करके मध्यपूर्व की युद्धभूमि हिंदुस्तान की सरजमीं को बना दिया है,ISIS को अमेरिका और इजराइल मदद देता रहेगा तेल युद्ध की खातिर।


अमेरिका,इजराइल और  ISIS का साझा लक्ष्य है इस्लाम का सफाया और भारत में संस्थागत फासीवाद का लक्ष्य है मुक्तबाजारी तिलिस्म की मदद से पूरी दुनिया को मनुस्मृति शासन के मातहत लाने का राजसूय वैदिकी।विशुद्धता का राजसूय है यह।


संस्थागत फासीवाद को खूब मालूम है कि अमेरिका और इजराइल अपनी संतान  ISIS को खत्म करना नहीं चाहता क्योंकि वही अरब वसंत का सूत्रधार है।


भारत में अरब वसंत के सूत्रधार जाति धर्म के वंश वर्चस्व का मकसद भी ISIS को खत्म करना नहीं कतई नहीं है।


ISIS के खिलाफ बेमतलब युद्ध घोषणा से भारतीय उपमहादेश में  ISIS का जो जाल बन रहा है,उससे निपटना भी उनका मकसद नहीं है।


बल्कि जैसे फ्रांस और बाकी विकसित दुनिया में नागरिक और मानवाधिकार निलंबित है,जैसे नाटो की बायोमैट्रिक नागरिकता और डिदजिटल भारत की नरसंहार संस्कृति है,उसीतरह इस युद्ध घोषणा के साथ कल्कि अवतार ने समूचे भारत में सलवा जुड़ुम का विस्तार कर दिया है और पूरा देश या तो कश्मीर है या मणिपुर।


फासीवादी धार्मिक ध्रूवीकरण और नरसंहार संस्कृति के लिए जो महातिलिस्म है।


रेलवे का भाड़ा न्यूनतम पांच रुपये से दस रुपये हो रहा है।


गरीब गुरबों के लिए दाल रोटी के बजाय कारपोरेट राजगुरु जहर बांटे तो बेहतर,ऐसे आलम में सातवें वेतन आयोग के तहत 50 लाख सरकारी कर्मचारियों का वेतन महज 15 फीसद बढ़ाकर उनकी सर्विस 33 साल तक सीमित कर दे रही है और उत्पादकता से उनका वेतनमान जोड़कर मेहनतकशों के हकहकूक के कत्लेआम के बाद श्रम कानूनों के सफाये के बाद उनमें से ज्यादातर की छंटनी की खुली तैयारी है।


यही है जनता के खिलाफ युद्ध का आलम और ISIS के खिलाफ बेमतलब युद्ध घोषणा दरअसल हिंदुत्व उन्माद के जरिये विश्वव्यवस्था कब्जाने की रणनीति है और भारत में गैरहिंदुओं के साथ साथ बहुजनों की सफाये की भी तैयारी है यह।


तालिबान,अलकायदा की तरह हिंदू तालिबान भी अमेरिकी उत्पादन है और इस्लाम के साथ साथ गरीब दुनिया के सफाये के लिए ISIS अमेरिका और इजराइल का ब्रह्मास्त्र है।


पुतिन के खुलासे के बाद भी अगर हम यह नहीं समझ रहे हैं तो बोका हरम और पेरिस और बेरुत, लेबनान, इराक, अफगानिस्तान, मिस्र, लीबिया,जार्डन,सीरिया,तुर्की और यूनान में जो हुआ,वह ग्रीक त्रासदी का मजा हम भी लेंगे।

बोकोहरम में आतंकी हमलों में ज्यादा लोग मारे जा रहे हैं तो भारत में भी राष्ट्र की हिंसा के शिकार लोग रंगबिरंगी हिंसा ,हमलों,दंगा फसाद से कहीं बहुत ज्यादा है।


हाथ कंगन को आरसी क्या ?

पढ़ लें समकाीन तीसरी दुनिया का सितंबर अंक और इजराइली अमेरिकी कनेक्शन के वीडियो सबूत पेश करने के बाद बाकी सबूत भी हम लाइव शेयर कर रहे हैं जो हैंगआउट पर लाइव स्ट्रीम भी है।

Search Results

  1. ISIS was created by the CIA and Mossad - YouTube

  2. Video for isis created by cia▶ 8:06

  3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aQkYtmewSpQ

  4. Feb 19, 2015 - Uploaded by AMTV

  5. In today's video, Christopher Greene of AMTV reports on the terror group ISIS. AMTV Website: http://www ...

  6. Why The CIA Created ISIS - YouTube

  7. Video for isis created by cia▶ 7:01

  8. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qfBBF4_hkDQ

  9. Feb 19, 2015 - Uploaded by The Alex Jones Channel

  10. Alex explains ISIS & ISIL and the US Government's involvement http://www.infowars.com/why-obama-refuses ...

  11. ISIS: Creation Of The CIA - YouTube

  12. Video for isis created by cia▶ 27:01

  13. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W1zGJApfbDc

  14. Jun 23, 2014 - Uploaded by The Alex Jones Channel

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  28. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dYXXcwuJtbQ

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  33. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bq1_BPr9yo4

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  38. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_9ii5eDUcYY

  39. Sep 20, 2014 - Uploaded by Howard Bloom

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  41. ISIS and The CIA What You Need To Know! - YouTube

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  43. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3-Rm-8Irg7E

  44. Sep 14, 2014 - Uploaded by WeAreChange

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America Created Al-Qaeda and the ISIS Terror Group

By Garikai Chengu

Global Research, November 14, 2015

Global Research 19 September 2014

Originally published by GR in September 2014

Much like Al Qaeda, the Islamic State (ISIS) is made-in-the-USA, an instrument of terror designed to divide and conquer the oil-rich Middle East and to counter Iran's growing influence in the region.

The fact that the United States has a long and torrid history of backing terrorist groups will surprise only those who watch the news and ignore history.

The CIA first aligned itself with extremist Islam during the Cold War era. Back then, America saw the world in rather simple terms: on one side, the Soviet Union and Third World nationalism, which America regarded as a Soviet tool; on the other side, Western nations and militant political Islam, which America considered an ally in the struggle against the Soviet Union.

The director of the National Security Agency under Ronald Reagan, General William Odom recently remarked, "by any measure the U.S. has long used terrorism. In 1978-79 the Senate was trying to pass a law against international terrorism – in every version they produced, the lawyers said the U.S. would be in violation."

During the 1970′s the CIA used the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt as a barrier, both to thwart Soviet expansion and prevent the spread of Marxist ideology among the Arab masses. The United States also openly supported Sarekat Islam against Sukarno in Indonesia, and supported the Jamaat-e-Islami terror group against Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto in Pakistan. Last but certainly not least, there is Al Qaeda.

Lest we forget, the CIA gave birth to Osama Bin Laden and breastfed his organization during the 1980′s. Former British Foreign Secretary, Robin Cook, told the House of Commons that Al Qaeda was unquestionably a product of Western intelligence agencies. Mr. Cook explained that Al Qaeda, which literally means an abbreviation of "the database" in Arabic, was originally the computer database of the thousands of Islamist extremists, who were trained by the CIA and funded by the Saudis, in order to defeat the Russians in Afghanistan.

America's relationship with Al Qaeda has always been a love-hate affair. Depending on whether a particular Al Qaeda terrorist group in a given region furthers American interests or not, the U.S. State Department either funds or aggressively targets that terrorist group. Even as American foreign policy makers claim to oppose Muslim extremism, they knowingly foment it as a weapon of foreign policy.

The Islamic State is its latest weapon that, much like Al Qaeda, is certainly backfiring. ISIS recently rose to international prominence after its thugs began beheading American journalists. Now the terrorist group controls an area the size of the United Kingdom.

In order to understand why the Islamic State has grown and flourished so quickly, one has to take a look at the organization's American-backed roots. The 2003 American invasion and occupation of Iraq created the pre-conditions for radical Sunni groups, like ISIS, to take root. America, rather unwisely, destroyed Saddam Hussein's secular state machinery and replaced it with a predominantly Shiite administration. The U.S. occupation caused vast unemployment in Sunni areas, by rejecting socialism and closing down factories in the naive hope that the magical hand of the free market would create jobs. Under the new U.S.-backed Shiite regime, working class Sunni's lost hundreds of thousands of jobs. Unlike the white Afrikaners in South Africa, who were allowed to keep their wealth after regime change, upper class Sunni's were systematically dispossessed of their assets and lost their political influence. Rather than promoting religious integration and unity, American policy in Iraq exacerbated sectarian divisions and created a fertile breading ground for Sunni discontent, from which Al Qaeda in Iraq took root.

The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) used to have a different name: Al Qaeda in Iraq. After 2010 the group rebranded and refocused its efforts on Syria.

There are essentially three wars being waged in Syria: one between the government and the rebels, another between Iran and Saudi Arabia, and yet another between America and Russia. It is this third, neo-Cold War battle that made U.S. foreign policy makers decide to take the risk of arming Islamist rebels in Syria, because Syrian President, Bashar al-Assad, is a key Russian ally. Rather embarrassingly, many of these Syrian rebels have now turned out to be ISIS thugs, who are openly brandishing American-made M16 Assault rifles.

America's Middle East policy revolves around oil and Israel. The invasion of Iraq has partially satisfied Washington's thirst for oil, but ongoing air strikes in Syria and economic sanctions on Iran have everything to do with Israel. The goal is to deprive Israel's neighboring enemies, Lebanon's Hezbollah and Palestine's Hamas, of crucial Syrian and Iranian support.

ISIS is not merely an instrument of terror used by America to topple the Syrian government; it is also used to put pressure on Iran.

The last time Iran invaded another nation was in 1738. Since independence in 1776, the U.S. has been engaged in over 53 military invasions and expeditions. Despite what the Western media's war cries would have you believe, Iran is clearly not the threat to regional security, Washington is. An Intelligence Report published in 2012, endorsed by all sixteen U.S. intelligence agencies, confirms that Iran ended its nuclear weapons program in 2003. Truth is, any Iranian nuclear ambition, real or imagined, is as a result of American hostility towards Iran, and not the other way around.

America is using ISIS in three ways: to attack its enemies in the Middle East, to serve as a pretext for U.S. military intervention abroad, and at home to foment a manufactured domestic threat, used to justify the unprecedented expansion of invasive domestic surveillance.

By rapidly increasing both government secrecy and surveillance, Mr. Obama's government is increasing its power to watch its citizens, while diminishing its citizens' power to watch their government. Terrorism is an excuse to justify mass surveillance, in preparation for mass revolt.

The so-called "War on Terror" should be seen for what it really is: a pretext for maintaining a dangerously oversized U.S. military. The two most powerful groups in the U.S. foreign policy establishment are the Israel lobby, which directs U.S. Middle East policy, and the Military-Industrial-Complex, which profits from the former group's actions. Since George W. Bush declared the "War on Terror" in October 2001, it has cost the American taxpayer approximately 6.6 trillion dollars and thousands of fallen sons and daughters; but, the wars have also raked in billions of dollars for Washington's military elite.

In fact, more than seventy American companies and individuals have won up to $27 billion in contracts for work in postwar Iraq and Afghanistan over the last three years, according to a recent study by the Center for Public Integrity. According to the study, nearly 75 per cent of these private companies had employees or board members, who either served in, or had close ties to, the executive branch of the Republican and Democratic administrations, members of Congress, or the highest levels of the military.

In 1997, a U.S. Department of Defense report stated, "the data show a strong correlation between U.S. involvement abroad and an increase in terrorist attacks against the U.S." Truth is, the only way America can win the "War On Terror" is if it stops giving terrorists the motivation and the resources to attack America. Terrorism is the symptom; American imperialism in the Middle East is the cancer. Put simply, the War on Terror is terrorism; only, it is conducted on a much larger scale by people with jets and missiles.

Garikai Chengu is a research scholar at Harvard University. Contact him on garikai.chengu@gmail.com

The original source of this article is Global Research

Copyright © Garikai Chengu, Global Research, 2015



पेरिस में आइसिस: तारिक अली

Posted by Reyaz-ul-haque on 11/15/2015 01:44:00 PM



तारिक अली. वर्सोबुक्स से साभार. ऊपर दी गई तस्वीर बेरुत की है, जहां पेरिस पर हमले से एक दिन पहले गुरुवार को आइसिस ने फिदायीन हमला करके 43 लोगों की हत्या कर दी थी. पेरिस की खबरें दुनिया भर में छाई हैं, लेकिन बेरुत के मातम में कोई शरीक नहीं है. अनुवाद: रेयाज उल हक


तो आइसिस ने दावा किया है कि उनके हमले फ्रांस द्वारा मध्य पूर्व में 'खिलाफत' पर की जा रही बमबारी का जवाब हैं. इसमें कोई दोराय नहीं है कि हॉलैंडे/वैले जंगखोर हैं. इसमें विडंबना है कि वे असद हुकूमत को गिराने की तैयारी कर रहे हैं (जब तक वाशिंगटन देर करने के लिए नहीं कहता) और इस तरह वे इस इलाके में आइसिस के सहयोगी हो जाएंगे. असल में सीरिया में विपक्षियों की एक बड़ी जमात असद को टकराव के सबसे बड़े नुक्ते के रूप में देखती है और यह भी उम्मीद कर रही थी कि पश्चिम एक और हुकूमत में तब्दीली लेकर आएगा. अगर उन्होंने ऐसा किया होता तो एक दूसरे से लड़ रहे जिहादी समूहों के बीच में एक गृह युद्ध छिड़ गया होता और फिर कौन जानता है कि संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका/यूरोपीय संघ उनमें से किसकी हिमायत करते.


आइसिस ने फ्रांस की राजधानी पर हमला किया है और एक सौ से ज्यादा नागरिकों की हत्या कर दी है और उससे दोगुने लोग जख्मी हैं. मैं जानता हूं कि पश्चिम ने भी यही किया है, असल में उसने दसियों हजार लोगों को मारा है, लेकिन कट्टरपंथ का यह टकराव कहीं नहीं लेकर जाएगा. पश्चिम नैतिक रूप में जिहादियों से बेहतर नहीं है. आखिर तलवार से सरेआम किसी का गला काटना, ड्रोन हमले में अंधाधुंध हत्याएं करने से खराब क्यों हैॽ इनमें से किसी का भी न तो समर्थन किया जा सकता है और न करना चाहिए.


अक्सर यह दलील दी जाती है कि अल कायदा और आइसिस दोनों ही अफगानिस्तान और इराक में साम्राज्यवादी युद्धों का अंजाम हैं और बेशक बात यही है. लेकिन यह काफी नहीं है. धर्मनिरपेक्ष राष्ट्रवाद की खुदकुशी और स्थानीय दमन और लोकप्रिय समर्थन में गिरावट के नतीजे में छोटे छोटे प्रगतिशील समूहों में आए नकारेपन पर भी गौर किया जाना चाहिए. इस प्रक्रिया ने सऊदी हुकूमत को सामने ला दिया है और अल-कायदा और आइसिस दोनों ही वहाबीवाद के भारी असर में हैं, जो सुन्नी इस्लाम के भीतर एक बहुत ही छोटी सी जमात है.


इस इलाके में फिर से स्थिरता बहाल करने के लिए तीन अहम शर्तें हैं: सऊदी शाही परिवार को मिल रहा पश्चिमी समर्थन खत्म हो; इलाके में सारी पश्चिमी दखलंदाजी खत्म हो, एक अकेला इस्राईली/फलस्तीनी राज्य बने जिसके सभी नागरिकों को बराबर के हक हासिल हों. जब तक यह नहीं होता, सियासी सनकी और वहशी अपने पांव पसारते रहेंगे.


पेरिस और पूर्व अरब के किसी भी शहर में बेगुनाहों के कत्ल को किसी भी तरह जायज नहीं ठहराया जा सकता.


Pushing Back the Islamic State: The Battle for Rojava (Dispatch 1)

August 7, 2015 | 3:20 pm

The northeastern city of Hasakah is one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse in Syria. Its population of Kurds, Sunni Arabs, and Christians was until recently politically divided between equal zones of Kurdish and Assad regime control. Immediately following the fall of the strategic border town of Tal Abyad from Islamic State (IS) fighters to Kurdish YPG forces in June, however, IS hit back with a sudden shock offensive on the regime-held half of Hasakah, causing regime forces to crumble in a matter of days.

As the Syrian army and loyalist militias relinquished control to IS, the YPG entered the battle, first encircling IS positions and then launching a ground offensive supported by pounding coalition airstrikes. Despite IS using their elite forces in the offensive, the combination of airstrikes and YPG ground troops proved too much and IS fled its recent gains in the city, leaving behind only ruined buildings and mangled bodies.

For the first time, the YPG now finds itself in almost total control of Hasakah, with the regime squeezed into the central government district and IS cornered in the city's southern outskirts. VICE News secured exclusive access to YPG fighters as they cleared southern Hasakah of Islamic State militants.

Watch: The Girls Who Fled To Syria: Groomed By The Islamic State

Read: Islamic State Seizes Key Town in Central Syria

https://news.vice.com/video/pushing-back-the-islamic-state-the-battle-for-rojava-dispatch-1


BBC Our World - ROJAVA : SYRIA'S SECRET ... - YouTube

  1. Video for rojava▶ 23:09

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  3. Nov 14, 2014 - Uploaded by Darius Bazargan

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  15. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p2zxlFQxkQ4

  16. Jan 2, 2014 - Uploaded by VICE

  17. Check out all the episodes of VICE News here: http://bit.ly/PILfBe As Syria's bloody civil war enters its third ...

  18. Pushing Back the Islamic State: The Battle for Rojava ...

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  21. Pushing Back the Islamic State: The Battle for Rojava (Dispatch 1). August 7, 2015 | 2:50 am. The northeastern ...

  22. Kurds Assert Control of Hasakah: The Battle for Rojava ...

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  24. https://news.vice.com/.../kurds-assert-control-of-hasaka...

  25. Kurds Assert Control of Hasakah: The Battle for Rojava (Dispatch 3). August 13, 2015 | 8:55 am. The ...

  26. Pushing Back the Islamic State: The Battle for Rojava ...

  27. Video for rojava▶ 7:08

  28. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fHaaKR1HaFk

  29. Aug 6, 2015 - Uploaded by VICE News

  30. The northeastern city of Hasakah is one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse in Syria. Its population of ...

  31. Rojava: A Sincere Revolution - YouTube

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  33. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CcLPyfgXBAk

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  39. Aug 13, 2015 - Uploaded by VICE News

  40. The northeastern city of Hasakah is one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse in Syria. Its population of ...

  41. The Battle for Rojava (Dispatch 2) - VICE News

  42. Video for rojava

  43. https://news.vice.com/.../night-operation-against-the-isl...

  44. Night Operation Against the Islamic State: The Battle for Rojava(Dispatch 2). August 12, 2015 | 5:35 am. The ...



Indian Express reports:

Paris anti-terror raid: Suspects holed up in apartment, one dead

Paris anti-terror raid: Suspects holed up in apartment, one dead

French police, including a SWAT team, are currently raiding a neighbourhood in Saint Denis where suspects of last week's terror attack are believed to be holed-up.


Rojava

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Rojava

ڕۆژاڤای کوردستان

Rojavayê Kurdistanê



Anthem: "Ey Reqîb"

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Status

de facto autonomous region of Syria

Capital

Qamişlo (Qamishli)[1][2]

37°03′N 41°13′E

Official languages

Kurdish

Arabic[3]

Syriac-Aramaic

Government

Democratic confederalism[4][5][6][7][8]

Co-President

Asya Abdullah

Co-President

Salih Muslim Muhammad

Autonomous region

Autonomy Proposed

July 2013

Autonomy Declared

November 2013

Regional government established

November 2013

Interim Constitution Adopted

January 2014

Population

2014 estimate

4.6 million [9]

Currency

Syrian pound (SYP)


Rojava

This article is part of a series on the

politics and government of

Rojava

National symbols[show]

Constitution[show]

Government[show]

Legislature[show]

Elections[show]

Political parties[show]

Administrative divisions[show]

Foreign relations[show]

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Syrian Kurdistan or Western Kurdistan (Kurdish: ڕۆژاڤای کوردستان‎, Rojavayê Kurdistanê),[10][11] commonly known in Kurdish as Rojava, is a de factoautonomous region in northern Syria.[12] The region gained its autonomy in November 2013 as part of the ongoing Rojava Revolution, establishing a society based on principles of direct democracy, gender equality, andsustainability.[13] Rojava consists of the three cantons of (from east to west)Jazira, Kobani and Afrin. Rojava is not officially recognized as autonomous by the government of Syria[14] and is a participant in the Syrian Civil War.[15]

Kurds generally consider Rojava to be one of the four parts of a greaterKurdistan, which also includes parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and western Iran (Eastern Kurdistan).[16] However, Rojavan government and society is polyethnic.[17]

Contents

 [hide]

Name[edit]

Rojava (Kurdish: Rojavayê Kurdistanê‎, from rojava meaning "west") is also known asWestern Kurdistan or Syrian Kurdistan.

Geography[edit]

Map showing de facto cantons held by PYD forces in February 2014

Rojava lies to the west of the River Tigris along the Turkish border. There are three cantons: Jazira Canton, Kobani Canton and separately Afrin Canton. Jazira Canton also borders Iraqi Kurdistan to the southeast. Other borders are disputed in the Syrian Civil War. All cantons are at latitude approximately 36 and a half degrees north. They are relatively flat except for the Kurd Mountains in Afrin Canton.

History[edit]

Further information: Kurdistan, Kurds in Syria and Modern history of Syria

The Kurd Mountains were already Kurdish-inhabited when the Crusades broke out at the end of the 11th century.[18]

Ottoman Empire[edit]

See also: Ottoman Syria

Map from 1911 showing ethnic groups.

Kurdistan according to Treaty of Sèvres did not extend into Syrian territories

Map of Syria's ethno-religious composition in 1976

Kurdish-inhabited areas in 1992 according to CIA

During the Ottoman period (1299–1922), large Kurmanji-speaking Kurdish tribal groups both settled in and were deported to areas of northern Syria from Anatolia. The largest of these tribal groups was the Reshwan confederation, which was initially based in the Adiyaman region but eventually also settled throughout Anatolia. The Milli confederation, which was documented in Ottoman sources from the year 1518 onward, was the most powerful tribal group and dominated the entire northern Syrian steppe in the second half of the 18th century. Their influence continued to rise and eventually their leader Timur was appointed Ottoman governor of Raqqa (1800-1803).[19][20] Kurdish dynasty of Janbulads ruled the region ofAleppo as governors for the Ottomans from 1591 to 1607 and were allied with the Medici of Tuscany.[21]

The Danish writer Carsten Niebuhr who traveled to Jazira in 1764 recorded five nomadic Kurdish tribes (Dukurie, Kikie, Schechchanie, Mullie and Aschetie) and one Arab tribe. According to Niebuhr, those tribes were settled near Mardin in Turkey, and paid the governor of that city for the right of grazing their herds in the Syrian Jazira.[18][22] These Kurdish tribes gradually settled in villages and cities and are still present in Jazira (modern Syria's Hasakah Governorate).[23]

Until the 19th century, Kurdistan did not include lands of Syrian Jazira.[note 1][24]Similarly, Kurdistan as suggested by the Treaty of Sèvres did not include any territory in what later became Syria and Iraq.[25]

The demographics of this area saw a huge shift in the early part of the 20th century. Some Kurdish tribes cooperated with Ottoman authorities in the massacres againstArmenian and Assyrian Christians in Upper Mesopotamia,[26] and were in return granted their land as a reward.[27] Kurds cooperated with Ottoman authorities in the massacres against Armenian and Assyrian Christians in Upper Mesopotamia.[28]Kurds were responsible for most of the atrocities against Assyrians, and Kurdish expansion happened at the expense of Assyrians.[29][30]

Kurdish tribes attacked and sacked Assyrian and Armenian villages in Albaq District immediately to the north of Hakkari mountains, killing large numbers of villagers.[31]Many Assyrians fled to Syria following the Assyrian genocide committed by the Ottoman Turks and Kurds in Turkey,[31][32] and settled mainly in the Jazira area.[33]

The Assyrian population of Nusaybin crossed the border into Syria and settled inQamishli, which was separated by the railway (new border) from the former. Nusaybin became Kurdish and Qamishli became an Assyrian city.[citation needed]

French Mandate[edit]

Things soon changed, however, with the immigration of Kurds beginning in 1926 following the failure of the rebellion of Saeed Ali Naqshbandi against the Turkishauthorities.[34] While many of the Kurds in Syria have been there for centuries, waves of Kurds fled their homes in Turkey and settled in Syria, where they were granted citizenship by the French mandate authorities.[35] This large influx of Kurds moved to Syria's Jazira province. It is estimated that 25,000 Kurds fled at this time to Syria.[36]

Assyrians began to emigrate from Syria after the Amuda massacre of August 9, 1937.[37] This massacre, carried out by the Kurd Saeed Agha al-Dakuuri, emptied the city of its Assyrian population.[38][39] In 1941, the Assyrian community of al-Malikiyah was subjected to a vicious assault. Even though the assault failed, Assyrians were terrorized and left in large numbers, and the immigration of Kurds from Turkey to the area converted al-Malikiya, al-Darbasiyah and Amuda to completely Kurdish cities.[citation needed]

Pre-autonomy government from Damascus[edit]

Rojava under Syrian rule had little investment or development from the central government. Laws discriminated against Kurds from owning property, and many were without citizenship. Property was routinely confiscated by government loansharks. There were no high schools, and Kurdish language education in middle schools was forbidden, compromising Kurdish students' education. Hospitals lacked equipment for advanced treatment and instead patients had to be transferred outside Rojava.[40]

Arabization policy of Syrian governments[edit]

According to Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and Human Rights Watch, successive Syrian governments continued to adopt a policy of ethnic discrimination and national persecution against Kurds, completely depriving them of their national, democratic and human rights. Syrian governments imposed ethnically-based programs, regulations and exclusionary measures on various aspects of Kurds' lives – political, economic, social and cultural – among which are the following:[41][42]

  • 1958: The Baath party integrated Syria with Egypt in the United Arab Republic (UAR). As a result, recordings of Kurdish music were smashed in cafes and the publication and even possession of Kurdish books were offences punishable by imprisonment. Also Egyptian teachers were sent into Kurdish regions.[43][44]

  • 1960: The inhabitants of Amuda (a Kurdish town) accused the authorities of causing a fire in a movie house that caused the death of 283 Kurdish children. The perpetrators were presumably motivated by anti-Kurdish sentiments.[43][44]

  • Between 1946 and 1957, the Kurds in Syria had no political organization. The Kurdistan Democratic Party of Syria (KDPS) was founded in 1957. In 1960, the leaders were arrested and tortured. Finally, more than 5000 associated people were arrested.[43][44]

  • Kurds in Syria were also victims of racist propaganda of the Arab media. One campaign launched by the Arab media sported slogans such as 'Save Arabism from Jazira' or 'Fight the Kurdish Menace'.

  • Kurdish language remained forbidden and the public school became for the Kurds a place of Arabization. According to "Syria's Kurds: History, Politics and Society" by Dr. Jordi Tejel,"with the increase in literate children in the Kurdish regions, a tight surveillance system was established there, following the example of the Turks, by means of 'spies,' to stop the children from speaking Kurdish among themselves. Children discovered in flagrant 'defiance' could be physically punished.[43][44]

  • In 1962 the Syrian authorities in Hasaka randomly stripped tens of thousands of Kurdish families (more than 120,000 Kurds[45]) of their Syrian nationality. A census was implemented exclusively in Hasaka province for a period of just 24 hours only, and as a result tens of thousands of Syrian citizens of Kurdish origins lost their nationality and found themselves deprived of their citizenship. The census prevented all those affected by it from exercising all the natural rights that are based on citizenship – civil, social, political, cultural and economic – from exercising their right to work, to employment, to education, travel, the right to own a property and use agricultural land and from living normal lives.[41][42]

  • In 1973 in the province of Hasaka, the Syrian authorities confiscated an area of fertile agricultural land owned and cultivated by tens of thousands of Kurdish citizens and gave it to Arab families brought in from the provinces of Aleppo and Ar-Raqqa. The National Leadership Bureau of the ruling Baath Party issued orders to establish 41 settlement centers in these areas, in order to change the demographic composition of these areas by evicting and displacing the Kurdish inhabitants. In 2007, Syrian authorities in the Agricultural Association in Malikiyah, Hasaka province, signed contracts granting 150 Arab families from the Shaddadi region, Hasaka province, about six thousand square kilometers in Malikiyah. At the same time, it evicted tens of thousands of Kurdish people from these villages, and forced them to move to other areas inside and outside of Syria in search of a decent living.[41][42]

  • In 1967, all references to Kurds in Syria were removed from geography curriculum books, and many Kurdish citizens were subject to pressure from the staff of the Civil Registry Departments to not give their children Kurdish names.[41][42]

  • In 1986, the governor of Hasaka issued a decree which prohibited the use of the Kurdish language in the workplace. In 1989, the governor of Hasaka, Mohammed Mustafa Miro, issued another decree to re-confirm this ban on speaking Kurdish and added to it a prohibition on non-Arabic songs at weddings and holidays.[41][42]

  • In the 1960s, Syrian authorities planned to change the original Kurdish names of scores of villages in Hasakeh governorate in the northeast and in the Kurdish area in the Kurd Mountains, in the northwest near Afrin in the governorate of Aleppo, and began to implement it in the 1970s. In Afrin the names of all Kurdish villages were changed to Arabic. Some of the names which were changed to Arabic are: Kobaniya (now Ain al-Arab), Girdeem (Sa`diyya), Chilara (Jowadiyya), Derunakoling (Deir Ayoub), and BaniQasri (Ain Khadra).[42]

Rojava Revolution[edit]

Main article: Rojava Revolution

Military situation in the Syrian Civil War as of 15 November 2015.

 Controlled by Syrian Government forces

 Controlled by Kurdish forces (Rojava)

 Controlled by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

 Controlled by al-Nusra Front

 Controlled by Syrian opposition forces


(For a more detailed map, see Cities and towns during the Syrian Civil War)


During the Syrian Civil War, Syrian government forces withdrew from three Kurdish enclaves, leaving control to local militias in 2012. Because of the war, People's Protection Units (YPG) were created by the Kurdish Supreme Committee to defend the Kurdish-inhabited areas in Syria. In July 2012 the YPG established control in the towns of Kobanî, Amuda and Afrin.[46]The two main Kurdish groups, the Kurdish National Council(KNC) and the Democratic Union Party (PYD), afterwards formed a joint leadership council to administer the towns.[46][dead link] Later that month the cities of Al-Malikiyah(Dêrika Hemko), Ra's al-'Ayn (Serê Kaniyê), Al-Darbasiyah(Dirbêsî), and Al-Maabadah (Girkê Legê) also came under the control of the People's Protection Units.

The only major Kurdish-majority cities that remained under government control were Al-Hasaka and Qamishli,[47][48]although parts of both soon also came under the control of the YPG.

In July 2013, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) began to forcibly displace Kurdish civilians from towns in Ar-Raqqah governorate. After demanding that all Kurds leave Tell Abyad on or else be killed, thousands of civilians, includingTurkmen and Arab families, fled on 21 July. Its fighters looted and destroyed the property of Kurds, and in some cases, resettled displaced Arab Sunni families from the Qalamoun area (Rif Damascus), Dayr Az-Zawr and Ar-Raqqah, in abandoned Kurdish homes. A similar pattern was documented in Tel Arab and Tal Hassel in July 2013. As ISIL consolidated its authority in Ar-Raqqah, Kurdish civilians were forcibly displaced from Tel Akhader, and Kobanî in March and September 2014, respectively.[49]

Map of the territory changes during the YPG-led Northern Syria offensive (2015)

In 2014, Kobanî was besieged by ISIL and later liberated by YPG forces and the Free Syrian Army cooperating as Euphrates Volcano, with air support from United States-led airstrikes.

In January 2015, the YPG fought against Syrian regime forces inHassakeh,[50] and clashed with those stationed in Qamishli in June 2015.[51] After the latter clashes, Nasir Haj Mansour, a Kurdish official in the northeast stated "The regime will with time get weaker ... I do not imagine the regime will be able to strengthen its position".[52]

The Non-Government structures of the people[edit]

The Kurdish Supreme Committee (Desteya Bilind a Kurd, DBK) was established by the Democratic Union Party (PYD) and the Kurdish National Council (KNC) as the governing body of Rojava in July 2012.[53] The member board consists of an equal number of PYD and KNC members.[54] In November 2013, the PYD announced an interim government divided into three non-contiguous autonomous areas or cantons, Afrin, Jazira andKobani.[55]

The political system of Rojava is inspired by democratic confederalism and communalism. It is influenced by anarchist andlibertarian principles, and is considered by many a type of libertarian socialism.[56] The Constitution of Rojava has protection for currency, property rights and free trade.[57] The basic unit at the local level is the community which pools resources for education, protection and governance. At a national level communities are unrestricted in deciding their own economic decisions on who they wish to sell to and how resources are allocated. There is a broad push for social reform, gender equality and ecological stabilization in the region.[58]

Political writer David Romano describes it as pursuing "a bottom-up, Athenian-style direct form of democratic governance". He contrasts the local communities taking on responsibility vs the strong central governments favoured by many states. In this model, states become less relevant and people govern through councils.[59] Rojava divides itself into regional administrations called cantons named after the Swiss cantons.[57]

Moving towards democratic autonomy[edit]

The governance model of Rojava has an emphasis on local management, with regions divided into cantons with democratically elected committees to make decisions. The Movement for a Democratic Society (also known as TEV-DEM) is the political coalition governing Rojava.

Its programme immediately aimed to be "very inclusive" and people from a range of different backgrounds became involved (including Kurds, Arabs, Assyrians, and Turkmen (from Muslim, Christian, and Yazidi religious groups). It sought to "establish a variety of groups, committees and communes on the streets in neighborhoods, villages, counties and small and big towns everywhere". The purpose of these groups was to meet "every week to talk about the problems people face where they live". The representatives of the different community groups meet 'in the main group in the villages or towns called the "House of the People"'.

According to Zaher Baher of the Haringey Solidarity Group, the TEV-DEM has been "the most successful organ" in Rojava because it has the "determination and power" to change things, it includes many people who "believe in working voluntarily at all levels of service to make the event/experiment successful", and it has "set up an army of defence consisting of three different parts" - the YPG, the YPJ, the Asayish (a "mixed force of men and women that exists in the towns and all the checkpoints outside the towns to protect civilians from any external threat"), and "a special unit for women only, to deal with issues of rape and domestic violence".[60]

Centralised political representation[edit]

Alongside TEV-DEM there is the Kurdish Supreme Committee, the interim governing body of Rojava which consists of an equal number of Democratic Union Party (PYD) and Kurdish National Council (KNC) members, and a smaller number ofSyriac Union Party (Syria) members.[54] This council is mainly concerned with external affairs.

There are no plans for independence from Syria, but for self-administration and control of local resources.[61]

Elections for a new government were planned to be held before the end of 2014,[62] but this was postponed due to fighting.Local elections were eventually held in March 2015.

There are 20 ministries dealing with the economy, agriculture, natural resources, and foreign affairs.[62] Among other stipulations outlined is a quota of 40% for women's participation in government, as well as another quota for youth. In connection with a decision to introduce affirmative action for ethnic minorities, all governmental organizations and offices are based on a co-presidential system.[63]

Human rights[edit]

Rojava constitution[edit]

According to the Constitution of Rojava,[64][65][66][67] the administration of the de facto autonomous region is committed tointernational law regarding human rights. This includes the following amendments to Syrian law.

  • Equal rights for women and a ban on polygamy[68]

  • Religious freedom and equality of all ethnic groups

  • Ban on capital punishment and torture

Syrian opposition militias[edit]

According to a Human Rights report, since July 2013, Jabhat Al-Nusra, at times in coordination with other armed groups, carried out a series of killings of Kurdish civilians in Al Youssoufiyah, Qamishli and Al-Asadia (Al-Hasakah). During a raid by the Free Syrian Army, ISIS, the Islamic Front and Jabhat Al-Nusra battalions, fighters killed a Kurdish Yazidi man in Al-Asadia who refused to convert to Islam.[69]

ISIS[edit]

In June 2014, after ISIS defeated the Kurdish forces in the border city of Tell Abyad, ISIS fighters made an announcement from the minarets of the local mosques that all Kurds had to leave Tell Abyad on or else be killed. Thousands of civilians, including Turkmen and Arab families fled on 21 July.[49][70] Its fighters systematically looted and destroyed the property of Kurds, and in some cases, resettled displaced Arab Sunni families from the Qalamoun area (Rif Damascus), Dayr Az-Zawr and Ar-Raqqah in abandoned Kurdish homes.[49]

In June 2015 at least 220 Kurdish civilians were massacred in mass killings by ISIS Fighters[71][72] in their homes or killed by the group's rockets or snipers by an attack on the Syrian Kurdish town of Kobani on the Turkish border, which is one of the worst massacres carried out by ISIS in Syria. Women and children were among the bodies found inside houses and on the streets of Kobane. Also in a nearby village, IS reportedly shot dead at least 20 civilians, including women and children. TheSyrian Observatory for Human Rights said that ISIS fired at everything that moved.[73][74][75][76][77][78][79]

YPG militia[edit]

Some sources have accused PYD for human rights abuses which have been taken place in areas under their control.[80]The allegations include forcible recruitment, kidnappings, assassinations,[81] executions,[82] torture,[81] ethnic cleansing,[83]and expulsion.[81]

Legally women have equal rights and there are quotas for their political representation.[84] There is affirmative action to give power to minority groups and ethnicities as a guiding principle.

Human Rights Watch who was permitted to visit in early 2014, reported "arbitrary arrests, due process violations, and failed to address unsolved killings and disappearances" and made recommendations for government improvement.[81] However, Fred Abrahams, special advisor to HRW who visited Rojava and drafted the report, noted that the PYD has taken solid steps to addressing the problems and has been receptive to criticism. He notes that they are currently in the process of political transitioning from the Syrian government, training a new police force and creating a new legal system.[85]

There has also been multiple reports of teenage fighters serving in the YPG military. After criticism from Human Rights Watch when the problem persisted, the YPG pledged publically to demobilize all fighters under 18 within a month.[81] It is worth noting that the YPG is a "decentralised army", and individual units act autonomously.[86] However the YPG has taken steps to prevent teenage volunteer fighters under the age of 18. Torture is allegedly a common practice of PYD militias against opponents and those who refuse forcible recruitment.[80][87]

Violations of ethnic minorities[edit]

The YPG have been accused of ethnic cleansing against Arabs; which led to the fleeing of thousands and the destruction of several Arab villages[83] — a charge strongly denied by the Kurds.[88] The accusation was not backed by any evidence of ethnic or sectarian killings.[88] The head of Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the people who had fled into Turkey were escaping fighting and there was no systematic effort to force people out.[89]

A report by Kurdish human rights organization KurdWatch have said that YPG demanded residents of Arab villages around the Jabal ʿAbdulʿaziz (Çiyayê Kezwan) leave their villages in fears of the ISIL could count on support from the Arab population,[90] and burning houses of Arab villagers in Qamishli area in revenge for the YPG‑fighters killed at this location.[91]

In an interview by Society for Threatened Peoples with the head of the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, Rami Abdulrahman said that all "ethnic cleansing" allegations against YPG were nonsense. He also explained that these allegations were propaganda of Turkish and Syrian National Congress origin, because of their hostility towards Kurds.[92]

On 13 October 2015, Amnesty international accused YPG of demolishing homes of village residents and forcing them out of areas under kurdish control.[93] Amnesty International said that YPG has targeted the villages that were controlled by ISIL or where a small minority were suspected of supporting the group.[93][94] YPG spokesman Redur Xelil said: "Very simply, this is a false allegation."[95] and PYD leader Salih Muslim and YPG spokesman strictly denied the Amnesty International claims.[94]

Forcible fighter recruitment[edit]

Several incidents of forcible recruitment, including 16-year-old boys, have happened in by PYD forces.[96] The latest of these events happened in Afrin District during which approximately two hundred young men were forcibly recruited.[97] In a previous incident on 12 June 2015, Christian men in Qamishli resisted a forcible kidnapping attempt for recruitment in PYD militia. The situation escalated further with the arrival of vehicles of the regime-affiliated Christian Sootoro militia and one YPG fighter was reportedly seriously injured.[98] In another incident, a 14-year-old girl was forcibly recruited.[99] Local Kurdish residents in Amuda had rallied against forcible recruitment of minors.[100]

Oppression against other political parties[edit]

The 2014 report by Human Rights Watch documented the alleged cases of "arbitrary arrests" and "unfair trials" that had occurred since the beginning of the revolution in 2012.[101] PYD and YPG officials claim that the few proven instances of misconduct are isolated incidents and not tolerated.[81] According to Kurdwatch several incidents allegedly involved assassination, violence, torture, or expulsion of political opponents of PYD militias. In one incident, the Asayiş, the security service of the Democratic Union Party (PYD), expelled two Yekîtî (rival Kurdish party) members from their homes inRumaylan.[102]

Economy[edit]

In 2012, the PYD launched what it originally called the Social Economy Plan, later renamed the People's Economy Plan (PEP). The PEP's policies are based primarily on the work of Abdullah Öcalan and ultimately seek to move beyondcapitalism in favor of democratic confederalism.[103]

Private property and entrepreneurship are protected under the principle of "ownership by use", although accountable to the democratic will of locally organized councils. Dr Dara Kurdaxi, a Rojavan economist, has said that: "The method in Rojava is not so much against private property, but rather has the goal of putting private property in the service of all the peoples who live in Rojava."[104] [note 2]

The private sector is comparatively small, with the focus being on expanding social ownership of production and management of resources through communes and collectives. Several hundred instances of collectivization have occurred across towns and villages in all three cantons, with each commune consisting of approximately 20-35 people.[105] According to the Ministry of Economics, approximately three quarters of all property has been placed under community ownership and a third of production has been transferred to direct management by workers councils.[106]

There are also no taxes on the people or businesses in Rojava. Instead money is raised through border crossings, and selling oil or other natural resources.[107][108] Trade as well as access to both humanitarian and military aid is difficult as Rojava remains under a strict embargo enforced by Turkey.[109]

Price controls are managed by democratic committees per canton, which can set the price of basic goods such as for food and medical goods. This mechanism can also be used for managing public production to, for instance, produce more wheat to keep prices low for important goods.[108]

The government is seeking outside investment to build a power plant and a fertilizer factory.[110]

Resources[edit]

Oil and food production exceeds demand[62] so exports include oil and agricultural products such as sheep, grain and cotton. Imports include consumer goods and auto parts.[111] The border crossing of Yaroubiyah is intermittently closed by the Kurdistan Regional Government side. Turkey does not allow Syrian Kurd businesspeople or their goods to cross its border [112] although Rojava would like the border to be opened.[113]

Before the war, Al-Hasakah governorate was producing about 40,000 barrels of crude oil a day. However, during the war the oil refinery has been only working at 5% capacity due to lack of refining chemicals. Some people work at primitive oil refining, which causes more pollution.[114]

In 2014, the Syrian government was still paying some state employees,[115] but fewer than before.[116] The Rojavan government says that "none of our projects are financed by the regime".[113]

Military and police[edit]

PYD checkpoint in Afrin (August 2012)

Main articles: People's Protection Units and Sutoro

The DBK's armed wing is the People's Protection Units (Yekîneyên Parastina Gel, YPG). Military service was declared compulsory in July 2014 [117] due to the ongoing war against Daesh.

The People's Protection Units was founded by the PYD party after the2004 Qamishli clashes, but it was not active until the Syrian Civil War.[118] As of the signing of the Arbil Agreement by the PYD andKurdish National Council (KNC), the YPG came under the nominal command of the Kurdish Supreme Committee, although in reality it is almost exclusively still the armed wing of the PYD.[119] The Sutoro is a Christian militia defending Assyrian areas. The police function in Rojava-controlled areas is performed by the Asayisharmed formation.

The YPG is a trained force utilising snipers and mobile weaponry to launch hit-and-run attacks and maneuvre quickly.

Relying on speed, stealth, and surprise, it is the archetypal guerrilla army, able to deploy quickly to front lines and concentrate its forces before quickly redirecting the axis of its attack to outflank and ambush its enemy. The key to its success is autonomy. Although operating under an overarching tactical rubric, YPG brigades are inculcated with a high degree of freedom and can adapt to the changing battlefield.[86]

The YPG is finding resupply difficult.[120]

The existing police force is trained in non-violent conflict resolution as well as feminist theory before being allowed access to a weapon. Directors of the Asayiş police academy have said that the long-term goal is to give all citizens six weeks of police training before ultimately eliminating the police.[121]

Demographics[edit]

Further information: Kurds in Syria and Demographics of Syria

Ethnicity[edit]

Most of the people in Rojava are ethnic Kurds.[62] Especially in Jazira Canton there are settlements of Arabs. Most of the people in Khanik and Al-Malikiyah in Jazira Canton are Assyrian. There are also Turkmens and Armenians.

Religion[edit]

Most people in Rojava are Muslim but some are Christian. There are also other minorities such as Zoroastrians andYazidism, but a lot of Kurdish people in Rojava defend laicism. Interfaith relations are good.[122]

Languages spoken[edit]

Kurdish, Arabic, Turkish (Syrian Turkmen dialect) and Syriac-Aramaic are spoken.

Population centres[edit]

Qamishli is the largest city in Jazira canton. Kobane and Efrin are the principal cities of the other cantons.

Foreign relations[edit]

Main article: Foreign relations of Rojava

Turkey claims the YPG is the same as the PKK, which is considered a terrorist organisation by the EU, NATO, US, and Turkey itself. However, YPG leaders insist that the PKK is a separate organization.[123] In 2014 Turkey was accused of supporting ISIS attacks on the YPG, allowing them to conduct attacks from the Turkish border and providing logistical support.[124]

There is military cooperation with Iraqi Kurdistan and the USA.

In January 2015, a UK parliament committee asked the government to explain and justify its policy of not working with the Rojava military to combat ISIS.[125]

France is supportive of Rojava.[126]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kurdish inhabited regions in Syria.


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